Sgwrs:Rhestr arweinwyr gwladwriaethau cyfoes
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Teitl[golygu cod y dudalen]
- Cytuno. Llywelyn2000 22:28, 14 Mehefin 2010 (UTC)
Dros dro. Fedwn ni Copi a phastio o'r Saesneg fel ei fod yn gweithio heb newid dim???[golygu cod y dudalen]
States recognised by the United Nations[golygu cod y dudalen]
States recognised by at least one United Nations member[golygu cod y dudalen]
- The Royal Household. "Commonwealth members". Queen's Printer. http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/Commonwealthmembers/MembersoftheCommonwealth.aspx. Adalwyd 18 February 2011.
- Queen Elizabeth II is separately and equally monarch of 16 sovereign countries sometimes known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these countries, with the exception of the United Kingdom (where she predominately resides) she is represented by a governor-general (unhyphenated in Canada as governor general) at national level. In some of these countries, opinion differs as to whether the Queen or governor-general should be designated as head of state; there is no questioning of the Queen's position as sovereign, above the governors-general, however.
- Williams, George (31 January 2008). "Speculation on Queen before any choice needs to be made". Herald Sun. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/opinion-old/governor-general-is-still-boss/story-e6frfifo-1111115436569. Adalwyd 18 February 2011.
- The three-member presidency is the head of state collectively.
- The Preface to the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea states, "The DPRK and the entire Korean people will uphold the great leader Comrade Kim Il-sung as the eternal President of the Republic, defend and carry forward his ideas and exploits and complete the Juche revolution under the leadership of the Workers' Party of Korea." Kim Il Sung died in 1994.
- The seven member Swiss Federal Council is the collective Head of State and the government of the Swiss Confederation. Within the Council, the President of the Swiss Confederation serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- Abbas's presidency expired on 9 January 2009 but he unilaterally extended his term for another year. Haniyeh, as the Speaker of the House, would succeed Abbas were he to have died or been expelled from office. The two major political parties in Palestine, Fatah and Hamas disagree about who the legitimate President currently is.
- As part of the Fatah-Hamas conflict, essentially a civil war, Abbas dismissed Haniyeh and chose Fayyed as PM without parliamentary approval. The two major political parties in Palestine, Fatah and Hamas disagree about who the legitimate Prime Minister currently is.
- On November 12, 2006 the Salvation Union of South Ossetia, opposing the leadership of Eduard Kokoity, held an alternative presidential election, in which former South Ossetian Prime Minister Dmitry Sanakoyev was chosen as the president of the alternative government of South Ossetia.