Llên Lloegr yn y 18fed ganrif

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Yn gyffredinol, rhennir llên Lloegr yn y 18fed ganrif yn ddau brif gyfnod: yr oes Awgwstaidd, sydd yn barhad o'r newydd-glasuriaeth a gychwynnwyd gan lenorion yr Adferiad yn ail hanner y ganrif gynt; a dechrau'r oes Ramantaidd yn y 1790au, a adeiladodd ar draddodiadau'r beirdd natur a beirdd y fynwent a flodeuasant yng nghanol y ganrif.

Pasiwyd Statud Ann, neu'r Ddeddf Hawlfraint, gan Senedd Prydain Fawr yn 1710 i ddarparu hawlfraint i'r awdur dros ei waith. Pasiwyd y Ddeddf Drwyddedu yn 1737 gan roddi i'r Arglwydd Siambrlen yr hawl i sensro pob drama a berfformiwyd yn y wlad.

Mae rhan fwyaf y 18g yn cyd-daro â'r oes Sioraidd, sef teyrnasiadau'r brenhinoedd Hanoferaidd Siôr I (1714–27), Siôr II, (1727–60), a Siôr III. Er defnyddir yr ansoddair "Sioraidd" i gyfeirio at bensaernïaeth a dodrefn, hanes cymdeithasol, a gwleidyddiaeth y cyfnod hwn, yn anaml fe'i defnyddir i ddisgrifio llenyddiaeth, o bosib er mwyn osgoi cymysgu â'r beirdd Sioraidd, criw o feirdd a flodeuai yn Lloegr yn y 1910au.[1]

Yr oes Awgwstaidd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Rhyddiaith[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Barddoniaeth[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Yn ogystal â'i ryddiaith enwog, ysgrifennodd yr Eingl-Wyddel Jonathan Swift nifer o ogangerddi. Ystyrir un o gyfeillion Swift, Alexander Pope, yn fardd dychanol goreuaf y cyfnod newydd-glasurol, os nad yn holl hanes barddoniaeth Saesneg Lloegr. Fe efelychai cwpledi arwrol Dryden yn ogystal â ffurfiau dychanol a didactig y bardd Rhufeinig Horas. Y dosbarth uchaf oedd yn gyff gwawd ei ffugarwrgerdd "The Rape of the Lock" (1712–14), a fe wnaeth hwyl ar ben ei gyd-feirdd yn "The Dunciad" (1728).

Yn ail hanner yr 18g, trodd nifer o lenorion at themâu gwledig ac eidylaidd, mewn adwaith yn erbyn Deddfau Cau'r Tiroedd Comin a'r Chwyldro Diwydiannol, gan greu'r hyn a elwir yn farddoniaeth natur. Ymhlith yr enwocaf o'r traddodiad hwn mae "Ode to an Evening" (1746) gan William Collins, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" (1751) gan Thomas Gray, "The Village" (1783) gan George Crabbe, a "The Task" (1785) gan William Cowper. Y beirdd natur oedd y rhai i hebrwng cyfnod cynharaf Rhamantiaeth i lên Lloegr.

Rhamantiaeth a'i rhagflaenwyr[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Yn ystod yr oes Ramantaidd, canolbwyntiai beirdd Lloegr yn fwyfwy ar natur, meddwl ac emosiwn yr unigolyn, a diwylliannau cyntefig ac estron yn hytrach na'r gymdeithas gyfarwydd ac effeithiau cynnar moderneiddio. Gogwydd at yr adain chwith oedd gan Ramantiaeth, a chofleidiodd cenedlaetholdeb a chynhyrfiad y gwrthryfel a'r chwyldro. Tynnai'r beirdd Rhamantaidd ar egwyddorion a gwireddau sylfaenol, megis serch, harddwch, ac iawnder, y tu allan i ffiniau bywyd pob dydd.

Beirdd natur a beirdd y fynwent[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Blake[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Y gerdd "The Blossom" o'r gyfrol Songs of Innocence, a ddarluniwyd gan y bardd William Blake.

Gelwir beirdd cynharaf y mudiad yn gyn-Ramantwyr, a'r amlycaf ohonynt oedd William Blake. Mynegir pryderon am ormes economaidd yn ei gerddi sy'n defnyddio iaith syml a symbolaeth gryf. Fe nodir am ei farddoniaeth delynegol, yn bennaf Songs of Innocence (1789) a Songs of Experience (1794), yn ogystal â'i gerddi traethiadol hirion sydd yn nodweddiadol o'i broffwydoliaeth.

Beirdd y Llynnoedd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Dechreuodd y cyfnod Rhamantaidd go iawn ym marddoniaeth Saesneg Lloegr yn 1798 pan gyhoeddwyd y casgliad Lyrical Ballads gan William Wordsworth a Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Y ddau fardd yma oedd y blaenaf o'r genhedlaeth gyntaf o'r Rhamantwyr yn nechrau'r 19g. Ynghyd â Robert Southey, y tri hwn oedd Beirdd y Llynnoedd.

Y nofel[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. Peter Widdowson, The Palgrave Guide to English Literature and its Contexts, 1500–2000 (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), t. 61.

Darllen pellach[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Casgliadau a blodeugerddi
  • Paula R. Backscheider a Catherine E. Ingrassia (goln), British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century: An Anthology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009).
  • David Fairer a Christine Gerrard (goln), Eighteenth-Century Poetry: An Annotated Anthology, 3ydd argraffiad (Caerfuddai: John Wiley & Sons, 2015).
  • Melinda C. Finberg, Eighteenth-Century Women Dramatists (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 2001).
  • Vivien Jones (gol.), Women in the Eighteenth Century: Constructions of Femininity (Llundain: Routledge, 2016).
  • Roger Lonsdale (gol.), Eighteenth-Century Women Poets: An Oxford Anthology (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 1989).
  • Roger Lonsdale (gol.), The New Oxford Book of Eighteenth-Century Verse (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 2009).
  • Bradford K. Mudge (gol.), When Flesh Becomes Word: An Anthology of Early Eighteenth-Century Libertine Literature (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 2004).
Astudiaethau cyffredinol
  • Gary Day a Bridget Keegan (goln), The Eighteenth-Century Literature Handbook (Llundain: Continuum, 2009).
  • Arthur Raleigh Humphreys, The Augustan World: Life and Letters in Eighteenth-Century England (Llundain: Methuen, 1954).
  • Ruth Mack, Literary Historicity: Literature and Historical Experience in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Stanford, Califfornia: Stanford University Press, 2009).
  • Elaine M. McGirr, Eighteenth-Century Characters: A Guide to the Literature of the Age (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
  • Kate Parker a Courtney Weiss Smith, Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Rise of the Novel Reconsidered (Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2013).
  • Claude Rawson, Order from Confusion Sprung: Studies in Eighteenth-Century Literature from Swift to Cowper (Llundain: Allen & Unwin, 1985).
  • Kenneth Richards a Peter Thomson (goln), Essays on the Eighteenth-Century English Stage (Llundain: Methuen, 1972).
  • John Richetti, A History of Eighteenth-Century British Literature (Caerfuddai: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016).
  • Pat Rogers (gol.), The Eighteenth Century (The Context of English Literature) (Llundain: Methuen, 1978.).
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  • Pat Rogers, Literature and Popular Culture in Eighteenth Century England (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1985).
  • Pat Rogers, Documenting Eighteenth Century Satire : Pope, Swift, Gay, and Arbuthnot in Historical Context (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2011).
  • George Saintsbury, The Peace of the Augustans: A Survey of Eighteenth Century Literature as a Place of Rest and Refreshment (Llundain: G. Bell & Sons, 1916).
  • James Sambrook, The Eighteenth Century: The Intellectual and Cultural Context of English Literature 1700-1789 (Abingdon, Swydd Rydychen: Routledge, 2013).
  • W. A. Speck, Literature and Society in Eighteenth-Century England: Ideology, Politics and Culture, 1680-1820 (Llundain: Longman, 1998).
  • Charlotte Sussman, Eighteenth-Century English Literature: 1660–1789 (Caergrawnt: Polity, 2011).
Y nofel
  • Hilary Havens, Revising the Eighteenth-Century Novel: Authorship from Manuscript to Print (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 2019).
  • J. Paul Hunter, Before Novels: Cultural Contexts of Eighteenth Century English Fiction (Efrog Newydd: W. W. Norton & Company, 1990).
  • Sarah Tindal Kareem, Eighteenth-Century Fiction and the Reinvention of Wonder (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 2014).
  • April London, The Cambridge Introduction to the Eighteenth-Century Novel (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
  • John Richetti (gol.), The Cambridge Companion to the Eighteenth-Century Novel (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • Harrison R. Steeves, Before Jane Austen: The Shaping of the English Novel in the Eighteenth Century (Efrog Newydd: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965).
Barddoniaeth
  • John Arthos, The Language of Natural Description in Eighteenth-Century Poetry (Llundain: Frank Cass, 1949).
  • David Fairer, English Poetry of the Eighteenth Century 1700–1789 (Abingdon, Swydd Rydychen: Routledge, 2014).
  • Christine Gerrard (gol.), A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Poetry (Caerfuddai: Blackwell, 2006).
  • John Goodridge, Rural Life in Eighteenth-Century English Poetry (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • Deborah Kennedy, Poetic Sisters: Early Eighteenth-Century Women Poets (Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2012).
  • Jack Lynch (gol.), The Oxford Handbook of British Poetry, 1660–1800 (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 2016).
  • Eric Parisot, Graveyard Poetry: Religion, Aesthetics and the Mid-Eighteenth-Century Poetic Condition (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2013).
  • John Sitter, The Cambridge Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Poetry (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

Llenyddiaeth grefyddol
  • Donald Davie, The Eighteenth-Century Hymn in England (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  • John Seed, Dissenting Histories: Religious Division and the Politics of Memory in Eighteenth-Century England (Caeredin: Edinburgh University Press, 2008).
  • Alan P. F. Sell, John Locke and the Eighteenth-Century Divines (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1997).
Llenorion benywaidd
  • Paula R. Backscheider, Eighteenth-Century Women Poets and Their Poetry: Inventing Agency, Inventing Genre (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006).
  • Teresa Barnard (gol.), British Women and the Intellectual World in the Long Eighteenth Century (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015).
  • Jennie Batchelor a Manushag N. Powell (goln), Women'S Periodicals and Print Culture in Britain, 1690–1820s: The Long Eighteenth Century (Caeredin: Edinburgh University Press, 2018).
  • Melanie Bigold, Women of Letters, Manuscript Circulation, and Print Afterlives in the Eighteenth Century: Elizabeth Rowe, Catharine Cockburn and Elizabeth Carter (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).
  • Catherine Craft-Fairchild, Masquerade and Gender: Disguise and Female Identity in Eighteenth-Century Fictions by Women (University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993).
  • Moira Ferguson, Eighteenth-Century Women Poets: Nation, Class, and Gender (Albany, Efrog Newydd: State University of New York Press, 1995).
  • Deborah Heller (gol.), Bluestockings Now!: The Evolution of a Social Role (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015).
  • Chantel M. Lavoie, Collecting Women: Poetry and Lives, 1700-1780 (Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2009).
  • Sylvia Harcstark Myers, The Bluestocking Circle: Women, Friendship, and the Life of the Mind in Eighteenth-Century England (Rhydychen: Clarendon Press, 1990).
  • Katrina O'Loughlin, Women, Writing, and Travel in the Eighteenth Century (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
  • Betty A. Schellenberg, The Professionalization of Women Writers in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Thema a genre
  • Ian A. Bell, Literature and Crime in Augustan England (Abingdon, Swydd Rydychen: Routledge, 1991).
  • Paddy Bullard (gol.), The Oxford Handbook of Eighteenth-Century Satire (Rhydychen: Gwasg Prifysgol Rhydychen, 2019).
  • Max Byrd, Visits to Bedlam: Madness and Literature in the Eighteenth Century (Columbia, De Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1975).
  • Simon Dickie, Cruelty and Laughter: Forgotten Comic Literature and the Unsentimental Eighteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011).
  • James E. Gill (gol.), Cutting Edges: Postmodern Critical Essays on Eighteenth-Century Satire (Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1995).
  • Sasha Handley, Visions of an Unseen World: Ghost Beliefs and Ghost Stories in Eighteenth Century England (Abingdon, Swydd Rydychen: Routledge, 2007).
  • Emrys D. Jones a Victoria Joule (goln), Intimacy and Celebrity in Eighteenth-Century Literary Culture: Public Interiors (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018).
  • Robert L. Mack, The Genius of Parody: Imitation and Originality in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century English Literature (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
  • Andrew O'Malley, The Making of the Modern Child: Children's Literature in the Late Eighteenth Century: Children's Literature and Childhood in the Late Eighteenth Century (Abingdon, Swydd Rydychen: Routledge, 2003).
  • Julie Peakman, Mighty Lewd Books: The Development of Pornography in Eighteenth-Century England (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).
Diwylliant llenyddol a'r wasg
  • Jeremy Black, The English Press in the Eighteenth Century (Abingdon, Swydd Rydychen: Routledge, 2011).
  • Joseph M. Levine, The Battle of the Books: History and Literature in the Augustan Age (Ithaca, Efrog Newydd: Cornell University Press, 1991).
  • Joanna Maciulewicz, Representations of Book Culture in Eighteenth-Century English Imaginative Writing (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018).
  • Jon Mee, Print, Publicity, and Popular Radicalism in the 1790s: The Laurel of Liberty (Caergrawnt: Cambridge University Press, 2016).
  • Manushag N. Powell, Performing Authorship in Eighteenth-Century English Periodicals (Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2012).
  • James Raven, Publishing Business in Eighteenth-Century England (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2014).
  • Trevor Ross, Writing in Public: Literature and the Liberty of the Press in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018).
  • Abigail Williams, The Social Life of Books: Reading Together in the Eighteenth-Century Home (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2017).