Athroniaeth

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Neidio i: llywio, chwilio
Edward Herbert neu'r 'Barwn Herbert o Cherbury. "Tad athroniaeth yng Nghymru."
Conffiwsiws; darlun gan E. T. C. Werner.

Astudiaeth o sut y dylem fyw (moeseg), sut mae pethau'n bodoli (metaffiseg), natur gwybod (epistemoleg), a rhesymeg yw athroniaeth.

Mae athroniaeth yn astudiaeth o broblemau cyffredinol a gwaelodol sy'n ymwneud â bodolaeth, gwybodaeth, gwerthoedd, rheswm ac iaith.[1][2]

Gellir gwahaniaethu rhwng athroniaeth a dulliau eraill sy'n ceisio ateb y cwestiynau hyn (e.e. cyfriniaeth, mytholeg neu'r celfyddydau) drwy ei dull systematig, gwyddonol a'i dibyniaeth ar ddadleuon rhesymegol.[3]

Mae llawer o Gymry wedi ymhel â chwestiynau mawr crefydd yn hytrach nag athroniaeth fel y cyfryw, a bu perthynas agos rhwng diwinyddiaeth ac athroniaeth yng Nghymru ers sawl canrif. Yr athronydd cyntaf y gwyddom amdano yng Nghymru oedd Edward Herbert (1583-1648), a gellid dadlau mai ystyriaethau crefyddol a chyfrinol oedd y tu ôl i'r hyn a ysgrifennai Morgan Llwyd (1619-1659) am yr hunan.

Y gair gwreiddiol am athroniaeth yn y Gorllewin oedd y gair Groeg φιλοσοφία (philosophia), sy'n golygu "cariad at wybodaeth".[4][5]

Llinell amser[golygu]

Proclus Iamblichus o Syria Porphyry Plotinus Sextus Empiricus Marcus Aurelius Ptolemi Epictetus Seneca'r Ieuaf Philo Lucretius Cicero Carneades Eratosthenes Chrysippus Archimedes Aristarchus o Samos Timon (athronydd) Euclid Zeno o Citium Epicurus Strato o Lampsacus Pyrrho Theophrastus Aristoteles Diogenes o Sinope Platon Xenophon Aristippus Antisthenes Socrates Democritus Melissus o Samos Leucippus Philolaus Gorgias Protagoras Zeno o Elea Empedocles Anaxagoras Parmenides Heraclitus Xenophanes Pythagoras Anaximenes o Miletus Anaximandros Thales

Rhai athronwyr enwog[golygu]

Rhai athronwyr o Gymru[golygu]

Gweler hefyd[golygu]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu]

  1. Jenny Teichmann and Katherine C. Evans, Philosophy: A Beginner's Guide (Blackwell Publishing, 1999), tud. 1: "Philosophy is a study of problems which are ultimate, abstract and very general. These problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose."
  2. A.C. Grayling, Philosophy 1: A Guide through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), tud. 1: "The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind, and value."
  3. Anthony Quinton a T. Honderich (gol.), The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 1995), tud. 666: "Philosophy is rationally critical thinking, of a more or less systematic kind about the general nature of the world (metaphysics or theory of existence), the justification of belief (epistemology or theory of knowledge), and the conduct of life (ethics or theory of value). Each of the three elements in this list has a non-philosophical counterpart, from which it is distinguished by its explicitly rational and critical way of proceeding and by its systematic nature. Everyone has some general conception of the nature of the world in which they live and of their place in it. Metaphysics replaces the unargued assumptions embodied in such a conception with a rational and organized body of beliefs about the world as a whole. Everyone has occasion to doubt and question beliefs, their own or those of others, with more or less success and without any theory of what they are doing. Epistemology seeks by argument to make explicit the rules of correct belief formation. Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Ethics, or moral philosophy, in its most inclusive sense, seeks to articulate, in rationally systematic form, the rules or principles involved."
  4. Philosophia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  5. Online Etymology Dictionary
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