Tom Cruise

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Neidio i: llywio, chwilio
Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise avp 2014 4.jpg
Cruise yn premiere Edge of Tomorrow, Mai 2014
Ganwyd (1962-07-03) 3 Gorffennaf 1962 (54 oed)
Syracuse, Efrog Newydd, Yr Unol Daleithiau
Enwau eraill Thomas Cruise Mapother IV
Yn enwog am Mission: Impossible, Top Gun
Galwedigaeth Actor, gwneuthurwr ffilmiau

Mae Tom Cruise (ganed Thomas Cruise Mapother IV; 3 Gorffennaf, 1962) yn actor a gwneuthurwr ffilmiau Americanaidd. Yn ôl y cylchgrawn Forbes, ef yw'r seren enwocaf a mwyaf dylanwadol yn y byd.

Dechreuodd ei yrfa actio'n 19 mlwydd oed gyda'r ffilm Endless Love yn 1981. Ar ôl rolau cefnogol yn Taps (1981) a The Outsiders (1983), cafodd ei brif rôl gyntaf yn y comedi rhamantaidd Risky Business a ryddhawyd ym mis Awst 1983.

Daeth i amlygrwydd ar ôl serennu fel Pete "Maverick" Mitchell yn y ffilm ddrama acsiwn Top Gun (1986). Ers 1996, fe'i adnabyddir ar gyfer ei rôl fel Ethan Hunt yn y ffilmiau Mission: Impossible, a'r ffilm fwyaf diweddar yn y gyfres yw Mission: Impossible - Rogue Nation a ryddhawyd yn 2015.

Ers 1990, mae Cruise wedi bod yn gysylltiedig â'r corff o gredoau ac ymarferion crefyddol Seientoleg.

Bywyd cynnar[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ganwyd Cruise yn Syracuse, Efrog Newydd yn fab i Mary Lee (yn gynt Pfeiffer), athrawes addysg arbennig, a Thomas Cruise Mapother III (1934-84)[1], peiriannydd trydanol.[2] Mae'n frawd i dair chwaer Mary Lee, Marian a Cass. Mae ganddo linach Gwyddelig,[3]Almaenaidd a Seisnig.[4]

Magwyd Cruise yn dlawd o fewn magwraeth Gatholig. Cam-driniwyd ef a'i deulu gan y tad ac y mae wedi'i ddisgrifio fel "a merchant of chaos."[5] Yn ôl Cruise, roedd ei dad yn fwli ac yn gachadur, a chafodd ei guro ganddo.

He was the kind of person where, if something goes wrong, they kick you. It was a great lesson in my life—how he'd lull you in, make you feel safe and then, bang! For me, it was like, 'There's something wrong with this guy. Don't trust him. Be careful around him.'[5]

Symudodd y teulu i Ottawa, Canada yn 1971 er mwyn i'r tad gymryd swydd yn gweithio fel ymgynghorydd amddiffyn gyda'r Lluoedd Arfog yn y wlad.[6] Ar ôl cyfnod yng Nghanada, gadawodd y fam y tad gan fynd â'r plant gyda hi'n ôl i'r Unol Daleithiau.[6] Yn nes ymlaen, bu farw ei dad o ganser.[7]

Am gyfnod byr, mynychodd coleg offeiriadol Ffransisgaidd yn Cincinnati ar ôl derbyn ysgoloriaeth gan yr eglwys gyda'r uchelgais o hyfforddi fel offeiriad.[8] Yn ei flwyddyn olaf chwaraeodd pêl-droed i dîm y coleg cyn cael ei ddiarddel o'r sgwad ar ôl iddo gael ei ddal yn yfed cwrw cyn gêm.[9][10]

Trwy ei fywyd, mynychodd Cruise 15 ysgol dros 14 o flynyddoedd.[11]

Gyrfa[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cruise yn y 61ain Gwobrau'r Academi, 1989

Un o'r sêr ffilmiau mwyaf yn Hollywood[12][13], dechreuodd yrfa actio Cruise yn 19 mlwydd oed gyda'r ffilm Endless Love yn 1981. Serennodd mewn nifer o ffilmiau llwyddiannus yn yr 1980au, gan gynnwys y ffilmiau drama The Color of Money (1986), Cocktail (1988), Rain Man (1988), a Born on the Fourth of July (1989).

Cruise yn Sunnyvale, Califfornia, 2006

Yn yr 1990au, serennodd mewn llawer o ffilmiau llwyddiannus eto, gan gynnwys y ffilm rhamantaidd Far and Away (1992), y ffilm ddrama A Few Good Men (1992), y ffilm gyffrous The Firm (1993) y ffilm rhamantaidd arswydus Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles (1994), y comedi-ddrama rhamantaidd Jerry Maguire (1996), y ffilm gyffrous erotig Eyes Wide Shut, a'r ffilm ddrama Magnolia (y ddwy yn 1999).

Yn y 2000au, serennodd Cruise mewn nifer o ffilmiau llwyddiannus eraill, gan gynnwys y ffilmiau gyffrous ffuglen wyddonol Vanilla Sky (2001) a Minority Report (2002), y ffilm ryfel The Last Samurai (2003), y ffilm drosedd Collateral (2004), y ffilm drychineb ffuglen wyddonol War of the Worlds (2005), y ffilm ddrama ryfel Lions for Lambs (2007), y ffilm gyffrous hanesyddol Valkyrie (2008), a'r comedi acsiwn Knight and Day (2010). Yn 2012, serennodd yn y ffilm gyffrous Jack Reacher, y ffilm ffuglen wyddonol ôl-apocalyptaidd Oblivion (2013), a'r ffilm ffuglen wyddonol filwrol Edge of Tomorrow (2014). Yn 2016 bydd yn ailgydio yn ei rôl fel Jack Reacher yn y ffilm Jack Reacher: Never Go Back.

Cruise yn premiere Edge of Tomorrow ym Mharis, 2014.

Yn 2012, Cruise oedd yr actor gyda'r tâl uchaf yn Hollywood.[14] Enillodd 16 o'i ffilmiau dros $100 miliwn yn yr Unol Daleithiau, ac enillodd 22 dros $200 miliwn yn fyd-eang.[15]

Yn ôl adroddiadau ym mis Ionawr 2016, wedi misoedd o ddyfalu fe'i gadarnhawyd y serenna Cruise yn adfywiad y gyfres ffilmiau The Mummy a seiliwyd ar ffilm arswyd 1932 Boris Karloff.[16] Credir y bydd Cruise yn ymddangos gyda Sofia Boutella yn y ffilm a ryddheir ym mis Gorffennaf 2017.[17]

Gwobrau ac enwebiadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Mae Cruise wedi ennill Gwobrau Glôb Aur ar gyfer y Perfformiad Gorau gan Actor mewn Ffilm Ddrama yn 1990 ar gyfer Born on the Fourth of July; Perfformiad Gorau gan Actor mewn Ffilm Gomedi/Gerdd yn 1997 ar gyfer Jerry Maguire; a'r Perfformiad Gorau gan Actor mewn Rôl Gefnogol mewn Ffilm yn 2000 ar gyfer Magnolia. Yn 2002, enillodd Cruise Wobr Saturn ar gyfer yr Actor Gorau ar gyfer Vanilla Sky, ac yn 2003 enillodd Wobr AFI ar gyfer Ffilm y Flwyddyn ar gyfer The Last Samurai a Gwobr Empire ar gyfer yr Actor Gorau ar gyfer Minority Report.

Mae Cruise hefyd wedi derbyn tri enwebiad Gwobr yr Academi, ar gyfer Born on the Fourth of July, Jerry Maguire a Magnolia.

Bywyd personol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cruise gyda Katie Holmes, 2009

Cafodd Cruise berthynas gyda'i gyd-seren Risky Business Rebecca De Mornay (1983-1985),[18][19] yn ogystal â chanlyn y gantores ac actores Cher, hefyd yn 1985.[20]

Mae Cruise wedi bod yn briod ac wedi ysgaru tair gwaith. Priododd yr actoresau Mimi Rogers (yn briod 1987-1990),[21] Nicole Kidman(yn briod 1990-2001)[22] a Katie Holmes (yn briod 2006 - 2012).[23][24] Yn ogystal â'r priodasau hyn, cafodd berthynas gyda'r actores Penélope Cruz (2001-2004) ar ôl y briodas i Kidman, ond cyn y briodas i Holmes.[25]

Mae gan Cruise dri o blant, dau fabwysiedig ac un biolegol. Mabwysadiodd ferch gyda Kidman o'r enw Isabella yn 1992 a mab o'r enw Connor yn 1995. Gyda Holmes, cafodd un ferch o'r enw Suri, a fe'i ganwyd yn 2006.[26]

Seientoleg[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Yn ystod ei berthynas gyda Mimi Rogers, daeth Cruise yn rhan, ac yn hwyrach, yn ddadleuwr brwd dros yr Eglwys Seientoleg a'i rhaglenni cymdeithasol cysylltiedig.[27] Wedi brwydr gyda dyslecsia o oedran ifanc, mae Cruise wedi dweud bod Seientoleg, yn enwedig cymorth Study Tech L. Ron Hubbard, wedi'i helpu goresgyn y cyflwr.

Yn fwy diweddar, taniwyd sawl dadl oherwydd barn Cruise tuag at Seientoleg, gan gynnwys siarad yn erbyn seiciatreg a chyffuriau gwrthiselder a siaradodd yn benodol yn erbyn yr actores Brooke Shields a'i defnydd o'r cyffur paroxetine. Ymatebodd yr actores, gan ddweud "[Cruise] should stick to saving the world from aliens and let women who are experiencing postpartum depression decide what treatment options are best for them."[28]

Cruise gyda Mimi Rogers yng Ngwobrau'r Academi, 1989

Cododd Cruise arian i Downtown Medical er mwyn iddynt gynnig therapi dadwenwyno i weithwyr achub 9/11 ar sail gwaith L. Ron Hubbard. Derbyniodd hyn feirniadaeth gan feddygon[29] a diffoddwyr tân.[30]Sbardunodd ddadlau ar ôl ei ymddangosiad mewn fideo YouTube sy'n hybu Seientoleg.[31]

Yn ogystal â hyn, y mae wedi ymdrechu hybu'r crefydd ac i sicrhau ei fod yn derbyn cydnabyddiaeth yn Ewrop. Yn 2005, datgelodd Cyngor Dinas Paris bod Cruise wedi lobio swyddogion Nicolas Sarkozy a Jean-Claude Gaudin, sydd wedi mynd yn eu blaenau i'w ddisgrifio fel llefarydd milwriaethus dros Seientoleg, ac wedi gwrthod delio ag ef yn dyfodol.[32][33]

Crëwyd a chyflwynwyd y Fedal Ryddid Seientoleg ar gyfer Dewrder i Cruise gan arweinydd y mudiad David Miscavige yn 2004.[34]

Ffilmyddiaeth[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ffilmiau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Teitl Blwyddyn Rôl Cyfarwyddwr Nodiadau Cyfeiriad(au)
Endless Love 1981 Billy Franco Zeffirelli [35]
Taps 1981 David Shawn Harold Becker [36]
The Outsiders 1983

Steve Randle

Francis Ford Coppola [37]
Losin' It 1983 Woody Curtis Hanson [38]
Risky Business 1983 Joel Goodson Paul Brickman [39]
All the Right Moves 1983 Stefen Djordjevic Michael Chapman [40]
Legend 1985 Jack Ridley Scott [41]
Top Gun 1986 Lt. Pete "Maverick" Mitchell Tony Scott [42]
The Color of Money 1986 Vincent Lauria Martin Scorsese [43]
Cocktail 1988 Brian Flanagan Roger Donaldson [44]
Rain Man 1988 Charlie Babbitt

Barry Levinson

[45]
Born on the Fourth of July 1989 Ron Kovic Oliver Stone [46]
Days of Thunder 1990 Cole Trickle Tony Scott Hefyd yn ysgrifennwr (stori) [47][48]
Far and Away 1992 Joseph Donelly Ron Howard [49]
A Few Good Men 1992 Lt. Daniel Kaffee Rob Reiner [50]
The Firm 1993 Mitch McDeere Sydney Pollack [51]
Interview with the Vampire 1994 Lestat de Lioncourt Neil Jordan [52]
Mission: Impossible 1996 Ethan Hunt Brian De Palma Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [53]
Jerry Maguire 1996 Jerry Maguire Cameron Crowe [54]
Without Limits 1998 Robert Towne Cynhyrchydd [55]
Eyes Wide Shut 1999 William Harford Stanley Kubrick [56]
Magnolia 1999 Frank T. J. Mackey Paul Thomas Anderson [57]
Mission: Impossible II 2000 Ethan Hunt John Woo Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [58][59]
Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures 2001 Adroddwr Jan Harlan [60]
The Others 2001 Alejandro Amenábar Uwch-gynhyrchydd [61]
Vanilla Sky 2001 David Aames Cameron Crowe Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [62]
Space Station 3D 2002 Toni Myers Adroddwr [63]
Minority Report 2002 John Anderton Steven Spielberg [64]
Austin Powers in Goldmember 2002 Ei hun fel Austin Powers Jay Roach Cameo [65]
Narc 2002 Joe Carnahan Uwch-gynhyrchydd [66]
Shattered Glass 2003 Billy Ray Uwch-gynhyrchydd [67]
The Last Samurai 2003 Nathan Algren Edward Zwick Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [68][69]
Collateral 2004 Vincent Michael Mann [70]
War of the Worlds 2005 Ray Ferrier Steven Spielberg [71]
Elizabethtown 2005 Cameron Crowe Cynhyrchydd [72]
Ask the Dust 2006 Robert Towne Cynhyrchydd [73]
Mission: Impossible III 2006 Ethan Hunt J. J. Abrams Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [74]
Lions for Lambs 2007 Y Seneddwr Jasper Irving Robert Redford [75]
Tropic Thunder 2008 Les Grossman Ben Stiller [76]
Valkyrie 2008 Claus von Stauffenberg Bryan Singer [77]
Knight and Day 2010 Roy Miller James Mangold [78]
Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol 2011 Ethan Hunt Brad Bird Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [79]
Rock of Ages 2012 Stacee Jaxx Adam Shankman Fe'i gredydwyd ar drac sain y ffilm:
"Paradise City"
"Wanted Dead or Alive"
"I Want To Know What Love Is"
"Pour Some Sugar On Me"
"Here I Go Again"
"Every Rose Has Its Thorn"
"Rock You Like A Hurricane"
"Don't Stop Believin"
[80][81]
Jack Reacher 2012 Jack Reacher Christopher McQuarrie Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [82]
Oblivion 2013 Jack Harper Joseph Kosinski [83]
Edge of Tomorrow 2014 Maj. William Cage Doug Liman [84]
Mission: Impossible – Rogue Nation 2015 Ethan Hunt Christopher McQuarrie Hefyd yn gynhyrchydd [85]
Jack Reacher: Never Go Back 2016 Jack Reacher Edward Zwick Ôl-gynhyrchu

Cynhyrchydd

[86]
Mena 2017 Barry Seal Doug Liman Ôl-gynhyrchu [87]

Teledu[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Teitl Blwyddyn Rôl Sianel Nodiadau
Fallen Angels 1993 Showtime Pennod: "The Frightening Frammis" (director)[88]
Preacher 2016 Gohebydd AMC Peilot[89][90]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. "About Tom". Time. June 24, 2002. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1002716,00.html. Adalwyd February 3, 2013.
  2. "Tom Cruise Biography". http://www.filmreference.com/film/26/Tom-Cruise.html. Adalwyd October 17, 2007.
  3. "Tom Cruise's Irish Ancestry". Eneclann. March 28, 2013. http://www.eneclann.ie/exhibitions/tomcruise/. Adalwyd 4 April 2013.
  4. "Ancestry of Tom Cruise". Wargs.com. http://www.wargs.com/other/mapother.html. Adalwyd August 8, 2009.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "I Can Create Who I Am". Parade. April 9, 2006. Archifwyd from y gwreiddiol on April 12, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110412060632/http://www.parade.com/articles/editions/2006/edition_04-09-2006/Tom_Cruise_cover. Adalwyd February 18, 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography". http://i.usatoday.net/life/books/tom_cruise_excerpt.pdf. Adalwyd September 25, 2012.
  7. "Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes: Very Different Upbringings". ABC. July 10, 2012.
  8. Cf. Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography, pp.24-26.
  9. Cf. Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography, page 47
  10. Tom Cruise Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story. Biography.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-13.
  11. "Famous New Jerseyans". http://www.famousnewjerseyans.com/entertainers.htm. Adalwyd 7 October 2014.
  12. Michael West. "'Edge of Tomorrow': Is Tom Cruise Still The World's Biggest Movie Star? [Poll"]. http://www.contactmusic.com/article/tom-cruise-edge-of-tomorrow-reviews_4220782. Adalwyd April 2, 2015.
  13. "Four Reasons Why Tom Cruise is Still the Biggest Star in the World". Hollywood.com. December 20, 2011. http://www.hollywood.com/news/movies/11492381/four-reasons-why-tom-cruise-is-still-the-biggest-star-in-the-world. Adalwyd April 2, 2015.
  14. Pomerantz, Dorothy (April 18, 2012). "Tom Cruise Tops Our List Of Hollywood's Highest-Paid Actors". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/dorothypomerantz/2012/07/03/tom-cruise-tops-our-list-of-hollywoods-highest-paid-actors/. Adalwyd July 23, 2012.
  15. "Tom Cruise". boxofficemojo.com. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/people/chart/?view=Actor&id=tomcruise.htm. Adalwyd June 3, 2013.
  16. Mendelson, Scott (January 21, 2016). "Tom Cruise will officially star in the Mummy". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottmendelson/2016/01/21/tom-cruise-brings-star-power-to-universals-mummy-reboot/#2d447df71ccf. Adalwyd January 22, 2016. The film will be produced by Alex Kurtzman, Chris Morgan, and Sean Daniel. It will be written by Jon Spaihts and also directed by Alex Kurtzman.
  17. Nodyn:Cite magazine
  18. "Yahoo biography of De Mornay". Sg.movies.yahoo.com. http://sg.movies.yahoo.com/Rebecca+DeMornay/biography/62182/. Adalwyd June 5, 2011.
  19. "Cruise Control". Vh1. May 27, 2005. http://www.vh1.com/news/articles/1502989/20050527/index.jhtml. Adalwyd June 5, 2011.
  20. "Cher reveals affair with Tom Cruise". NewsComAu. http://www.news.com.au/entertainment/celebrity/cher-once-dated-tom-cruise/story-e6frfmqi-1111116193761. Adalwyd April 2, 2015.
  21. Masters, Kim (September–October 2005). "The Passion of Tom Cruise". Radar. as excerpted by Radar at RadarOnline.com
  22. "Nicole Kidman says she still loves Tom Cruise - Entertainment - Celebrities - TODAY.com". Today.msnbc.msn.com. May 9, 2006. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/12690470/ns/today-entertainment/t/nicole-kidman-says-she-still-loves-tom-cruise/. Adalwyd July 23, 2012.
  23. Soriano, César G. (May 5, 2005). "Tom, Katie flying high on romance". USA Today.
  24. "Tom Cruise, Katie Holmes to divorce". CNN Entertainment. June 29, 2012. http://marquee.blogs.cnn.com/2012/06/29/report-tom-cruise-katie-holmes-set-to-divorce/?. Adalwyd June 29, 2012.
  25. "Cruise and Cruz end relationship". BBC News. March 26, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3570639.stm. Adalwyd October 31, 2008.
  26. Smith, Ryan E. (October 6, 2005). "Baby frenzy begins: Katie Holmes and Tom Cruise are expecting their first child together". The Blade
  27. Masters, Kim (September–October 2005). "The Passion of Tom Cruise". Radar. as excerpted by Radar at RadarOnline.com
  28. "Brooke Shields Lashes Out at Tom Cruise". People. June 2, 2005. http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,1067822,00.html.
  29. O'Donnell, Michelle (October 4, 2003). "Scientologist's Treatments Lure Firefighters". The New York Times.
  30. Friedman, Roger (December 22, 2006). "Tom Cruise Can't Put Out These Fires". Fox News. Archifwyd from y gwreiddiol on January 9, 2007. https://web.archive.org/20070109070250/http://www.foxnews.com:80/story/0%2C2933%2C238238%2C00.html. Adalwyd December 30, 2006.
  31. "Is Tom Cruise is Really Sick....???". 23 October 2015. http://www.firstshowreview.com/2015/11/is-tom-cruise-is-really-sick.html. Adalwyd 23 October 2015.
  32. "Paris snubs Scientology 'militant' Cruise". Irish Examiner. July 13, 2005. http://www.examiner.ie/breaking/story.asp?j=182470131&p=y8z47x994&n=182471074&x=. Adalwyd April 15, 2012.
  33. "Tom Cruise ne sera pas citoyen d'honneur de Paris" (in French). July 12, 2005.
  34. Maureen Orth (October 2012). "What Katie Didn't Know". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2012/10/katie-holmes-divorce-scientology. Nodyn:Inconsistent citations
  35. Ferguson, John. "Endless Love". Radio Times (Immediate Media Company). http://www.radiotimes.com/film/cr2t6/endless-love. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  36. Canby, Vincent (December 9, 1981). "Taps (1981)". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger). http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9800E4DC103BF93AA35751C1A967948260. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  37. Bernardin, Marc; Susman, Gary (November 8, 2007). "Tom Cruise, The Outsiders". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20471622_20158645_536211,00.html. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  38. Bernardin, Marc; Susman, Gary (November 8, 2007). "Tom Cruise, Shelley Long, ...". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20471622_20158645_536211,00.html#20047057. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  39. Bernardin, Marc; Susman, Gary (November 8, 2007). "Tom Cruise, Rebecca De Mornay, ...". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20471622_20158645_536211,00.html#536215. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  40. Bernardin, Marc; Susman, Gary (November 8, 2007). "Tom Cruise, All the Right Moves". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20471622_20158645_536211,00.html#20363983. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  41. Canby, Vincent (April 18, 1986). "Legend (1985)". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger). http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9A0DE2DC1E38F93BA25757C0A960948260. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  42. Oughton, Jack. "Outrageous Film Characters You Didn’t Know Were Based On Real People". Empire (Bauer Media Group). http://www.empireonline.com/features/film-characters-inspired-by-real-people/p2. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  43. Canby, Vincent (October 17, 1986). "The Color of Money (1986)". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger). http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9A0DE2DD103DF934A25753C1A960948260. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  44. Rickey, Carrie (July 29, 1988). "Tom Cruise And Bryan Brown Mix A 'Cocktail'". The Philadelphia Inquirer (Robert J. Hall). http://articles.philly.com/1988-07-29/entertainment/26234461_1_cocktail-molotov-doug-coughlin. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  45. Benson, Shiela (December 16, 1988). "Movie Review: 'Rain Man'--Not the Ordinary Buddy Film". Los Angeles Times (Austin Beutner). http://articles.latimes.com/1988-12-16/entertainment/ca-35_1_rain-man. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  46. Travers, Peter (December 20, 1989). "Born on the Fourth of July". Rolling Stone (Jann Wenner). http://www.rollingstone.com/movies/reviews/born-on-the-fourth-of-july-19891220. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  47. Benson, Shiela (June 27, 1990). "Movie Review : Utility Vehicle : 'Days of Thunder': The NASCAR racing footage and Tom Cruise's grin are fine. Robert Towne's malnourished screenplay isn't.". Los Angeles Times (Austin Beutner). http://articles.latimes.com/1990-06-27/entertainment/ca-446_1_robert-towne. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
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  49. James, Caryn (May 22, 1986). "Far and Away (1992)". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger). http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E0CE0DE173EF931A15756C0A964958260. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
  50. Kehr, Dave (December 11, 1992). "Full Court Press". Chicago Tribune (Tony W. Hunter). http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1992-12-11/entertainment/9204220853_1_daniel-kaffee-reiner-demi-moore. Adalwyd December 9, 2014.
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  89. TOM CRUISE MAKES AN EXPLOSIVE APPEARANCE IN THE "PREACHER" PILOT
  90. Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg on Blowing Up Tom Cruise in AMC’s ‘Preacher’