Enid Charles

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Enid Charles
Ganwyd 29 Rhagfyr 1894 Edit this on Wikidata
Dinbych Edit this on Wikidata
Bu farw 26 Mawrth 1972 Edit this on Wikidata (77 oed)
Torquay Edit this on Wikidata
Dinasyddiaeth Baner Cymru Cymru
Alma mater
Galwedigaeth ystadegydd, demograffegwr Edit this on Wikidata
Priod Lancelot Hogben Edit this on Wikidata

Roedd Enid Charles (29 Rhagfyr 189426 Mawrth 1972) yn sosialydd, ffeminydd ac ystadegydd a oedd yn arloesi ym meysydd demograffeg ac ystadegau poblogaeth.

Fe'i ganed yn Dorothy Enid Charles yn Ninbych, Cymru. Cafodd radd baglor mewn mathemateg, economeg ac ystadegau yng Ngholeg Newnham, Prifysgol Caergrawnt a Ph.D. mewn ffisioleg o Brifysgol Cape Town, De Affrica.[1]

Cyfarfu Charles â'r gwrthwynebydd cydwybodol Lancelot Hogben tra yng Nghaergrawnt, a phriodwyd hwy ym 1918.[2] Allan o ddwsin neu fwy o gyplau sosialaidd a ffeministaidd ym Mhrydain ar ddechrau'r 20fed ganrif, Charles oedd yr unig wraig i gadw ei henw.[3] Cafodd y cwpl ddau fab a dwy ferch[4] cyn gwahanu ym 1953 ac ysgaru yn 1957.[5]

Gweithiodd Charles ar gyfraddau ffrwythlondeb a phriodas i Dominion Bureau of Statistics yng Nghanada. Ym 1934, rhagwelodd Charles ddirywiad mawr ym mhoblogaeth y Deyrnas Unedig pe bai'r cyfraddau ffrwythlondeb yn parhau i ostwng. Ysgogodd y canlyniadau hyn iddi godi llais yn erbyn yr egwyddor gyffredin o ewgeneg a dderbyniwyd ar y pryd.[6][7] Yn dilyn hynny bu'n gweithio fel Ymgynghorydd Rhanbarthol mewn Epidemioleg ac Ystadegau Iechyd ac fel Ymgynghorydd Ystadegau Poblogaeth ar gyfer Sefydliad Iechyd y Byd yn Singapôr a Delhi Newydd.[1]

Bu farw yn Torquay, Lloegr, yn 1972, yn 77 oed.[2]

Llyfryddiaeth[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  • Charles, E (1931), "Metabolic Changes Associated with Pigmentary Effector Activity and Pituitary Removal in Xenopus Laevis.—I. Respiratory Exchange", Royal Society of London Proceedings Series B 107 (753): pp. 486–503, doi:10.1098/rspb.1931.0010
  • Hogben, L; Charles, E,; David Slome (1931), "Studies On The Pituitary: VIII. The Relation Of The Pituitary Gland To Calcium Metabolism And Ovarian Function In Xenopus", J. Exp. Biol. 8: pp. 345–354 Hogben, L; Charles, E,; David Slome (1931), "Studies On The Pituitary: VIII. The Relation Of The Pituitary Gland To Calcium Metabolism And Ovarian Function In Xenopus", J. Exp. Biol. 8: pp. 345–354 Hogben, L; Charles, E,; David Slome (1931), "Studies On The Pituitary: VIII. The Relation Of The Pituitary Gland To Calcium Metabolism And Ovarian Function In Xenopus", J. Exp. Biol. 8: pp. 345–354
  • Zoond, A; Charles, E (1931), "Studies in the Localisation of Respiratory Exchange in Invertebrates: I. The Respiratory Mechanism of the Fresh-Water Crab Potamonautes", J. Exp. Biol. 8: pp. 250–257
  • Charles, E (1932), The Practice of Birth Control, London: Williams and Norgate, OCLC 253047932
  • Hogben, L; Charles, E (1932), "Studies on the Pituitary: IX. Changes in Blood Calcium Following Injection of Anterior Lobe Extracts and Sexual Excitement in Female Rabbits", J. Exp. Biol. 9: pp. 139–148
  • Charles, E (1934), The Twilight of Parenthood: A Biological Study of the Decline of Population Growth, London: Watts and Company
  • Charles, E (1936), The Menace of Underpopulation: A Biological Study of the Decline of Population Growth, London: Watts and Company
  • Charles, E (1937), "The Changing Structure of the Family in Australia", Economica (Economica, Vol. 4, No. 15) 4 (15): pp. 245–273, doi:10.2307/2548953, JSTOR 2548953
  • Charles, E; Moshinsky, P. (1938), "Differential Fertility in Endland and Wales during the Past Two Decades", in L. Hogben, Political Arithmetic, London: Allen and Unwin, pp. 106–160
  • Charles, E (1941), "The Nuptiality Problem with Special Reference to Canadian Marriage Statistics", Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 2: p. 477
  • Charles, E (1942), "The Trend of Fertility in Prince Edward Island", The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science (The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science / Revue canadienne d'Economique et de Science politique, Vol. 8, No. 2) 8 (2): pp. 213–246, doi:10.2307/136951, JSTOR 136951
  • Charles, E (1943), "Differential Fertility in Canada, 1931", The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science (The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science / Revue canadienne d'Economique et de Science politique, Vol. 9, No. 2) 9 (2): pp. 175–218, doi:10.2307/137418, JSTOR 137418
  • Charles, E (1946), The Changing Size of the Family in Canada, Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics
  • Charles, E (January 1951), "Statistical Utilization of Maternity and Child Welfare Records", Br J Soc Med 5 (1): pp. 41–61, doi:10.1136/jech.5.1.41, PMC 1012565, PMID 14839232
  • Charles, E (April 1953), "The Hour of Birth: A Study of the Distribution of Times of Onset of Labour and of Delivery throughout the 24-hour Period", Br J Prev Soc Med 7 (2): pp. 43–59, doi:10.1136/jech.7.2.43, PMC 1058488, PMID 13051536

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Sylvia Wargon (2005), "Legacy of Enid Charles, 1894–1972", Canadian Studies in Population 32: pp. 137–153, http://www.canpopsoc.org/journal/CSPv32n2p137.pdf
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Dr. Enid Charles", The Times, April 3, 1972
  3. Outram, Dorinda; Abir-Am, Pnina G. (1987), Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 1789–1979, New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0-8135-1256-5
  4. Who Was Who, 1971-1980. A and C Black. 1981. p. 375. ISBN 0-7136-2176-1.Sketch on Lancelot Hogben.
  5. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 27. Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-19-861377-6.Article on Hogben by Robert Bud.
  6. W.H.G. Armytage (1996), The Social Context of Eugenic Thought, Galton Institute, http://www.galtoninstitute.org.uk/Newsletters/GINL9606/index.html
  7. Pedersen, Susan (1993), Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State in Britain and France, 1914–1945, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55834-4