Sarah Palin

Oddi ar Wicipedia
Neidio i: llywio, chwilio
Sarah Palin
9fed Llywodraethwr o Alaska
Yn ei swydd
4 Rhagfyr, 2006 – 26 Gorffenaf, 2009
Lieutenant Sean Parnell
Rhagflaenydd Frank Murkowski
Ar ei ôl Sean Parnell
Cadeirydd o'r Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission
Yn ei swydd
19 Chwefror, 2003 – 23 Ionawr, 2004
Governor Frank Murkowski
Rhagflaenydd Camille Taylor
Ar ei ôl John Norman
Maer o Wasilla
Yn ei swydd
14 Hydref, 1996 – 14 Hydref, 2002
Rhagflaenydd John Stein
Ar ei ôl Dianne Keller
Aelod o Gyngor Dinas Wasilla
Yn ei swydd
19 Hydref, 1992 – 14 Hydref, 1996
Rhagflaenydd Dorothy Smith
Ar ei ôl Colleen Cottle
Manylion personol
Ganwyd Sarah Louise Heath
(1964-02-11) 11 Chwefror 1964 (53 oed)
Sandpoint, Idaho, U.S.
Plaid wleidyddol Gweriniaethol
Gŵr neu wraig Todd Palin (pr. 1988)
Plant 5 (Bristol Palin yn nodedig)
Alma mater University of Idaho
Proffesiwn Gwleidydd
Crefydd Cristnogaeth anenwadol
Llofnod
Gwefan https://sarahpalinchannel.com

Gwleidydd Americanaidd, sylwebydd, awdur a chyn-lywodraethwraig o Alaska yw Sarah Louise Palin (née Heath; ganwyd 11 Chwefror 1964). Hi oedd Llywodraethwraig Alaska o 2006 hyd at ei hymddiswyddiad ym 2009. Fel yr enwebai o'r Blaid Weriniaethol am Is-Arlywyddiaeth 2008 gyda'r seneddwr John McCain o Arizona, hi oedd y person cyntaf o Alaska a'r ferch gyntaf o'r Blaid Weriniaethol i gael ei henwebu. Mae ei llyfr "Going Rogue" wedi gwerthu mwy na dwy filiwn o gopïau.

Cafodd ei hethol i Gyngor Dinas Wasilla ym 1992, a daeth yn Faer Wasilla ym 1996. Yn 2003, ar ôl ymgais aflwyddianus i ddod yn Ddirprwy Lywodraethwr, cafodd ei phenodi i'r "Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission", sy'n gyfrifol am ddiogelwch ac effeithlonrwydd y meysydd olew a nwy yn y dalaith. Hi yw'r person ieuengaf a'r ferch gyntaf i gael ei hethol yn Llywodraethwraig Alaska,[1] cynhaliodd Palin y swydd o fis Rhagfyr 2006 tan ei hymddiswyddiad ym mis Gorffennaf 2009.

Ers gadael ei swydd, mae hi wedi cefnogi ac ymgyrchu ar gyfer y symudiad Tea Party, yn ogystal â nifer o ymgeiswyr eraill mewn nifer o etholiadau. O 2010 i 2015, roedd hi'n darparu sylwebaeth wleidyddol ar gyfer Fox News.[2] Ar 3 Ebrill, 2014, dechreuodd Palin ei chyfres teledu newydd , "Amazing America with Sarah Palin" ar Sportsman Channel.[3][4] Ar 27 Gorffennaf, 2014, lansiodd Palin sianel newyddion ar-lein: "Sarah Palin Channel".[5]

Bywyd cynnar a theulu[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ganwyd Palin yn Sandpoint, Idaho, y trydydd o bedwar o blant (tair merch, un mab) yn ferch i Sarah "Sally" (née Sheeran), ysgrifenyddes ysgol, a Charles R. "Chuck" Heath, athro gwyddoniaeth a hyfforddwr athletau. Mae hi'n chwaer i Heather, Molly a Chuck Jr. Palin.[6][7][8][9][10] Mae Palin o dras Seisnig, Gwyddelig, ac Almaenig.[11]

Pan oedd Palin yn fabi, symudodd y teulu i Skagway, Alaska,[12] lle derbyniodd ei thad ei swydd fel athro.[13] Ymgartrefon nhw yn Eagle River ym 1969, ac yn olaf, yn Wasilla ym 1972.[14][15]

Chwaraeodd Palin y ffliwt mewn band yn ysgol ganol, ac wedyn aeth hi i Ysgol Uwchradd Wasilla lle roedd hi'n bennaeth o'r "Fellowship of Christian Athletes",[16] ac aelod o'r timau pêl-fasged merched a rhedeg traws gwlad.[17] Yn ystod ei blwyddyn olaf yn ysgol, roedd hi'n gapten a gard pwynt o'r tîm pêl-fasged a enillodd y Pencampwriaeth y dalaith Alaska ym 1982; cafodd hi'r llysenw "Sarah Barracuda" oherwydd ei chystadleurwydd.[18][19][20]

Ym 1984, enillodd Palin y pasiant "Miss Wasilla",[21] ac wedyn gorffenodd hi yn y trydydd safle yn y pasiant "Miss Alaska".[22][23] Chwaraeodd hi y ffliwt i ddangos ei thalent.[24] Dywedodd un awdur ei bod hi wedi derbyn y wobr "Miss Congeniality" yn y gystadleuaeth "Miss Wasilla" (ond mae cystadleuydd arall a chyd-ddisgybl o Palin wedi gwadu hyn)[21] ac ysgoloriaeth coleg.[18]

Prifysgol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ar ôl graddio o ysgol uwchradd ym 1982, aeth Palin i Brifysgol Hawaii yn Hilo.[25] Ychydig ar ôl cyrraedd yn Hawaii, trosglwyddodd Palin i Hawaii Pacific University yn Honolulu am semestr yn yr hydref o 1982, ac wedyn i North Idaho College, coleg cymunedol yn Coeur d'Alene, am y semestr yn y gwanwyn a'r hydref o 1983.[26] Aeth hi i University of Idaho ym Moscfa am flwyddyn academaidd, yn dechrau ym mis Awst 1984, ac wedyn aeth i Matanuska-Susitna College yn Alaska yn yr hydref o 1985. Dychwelodd Palin i University of Idaho ym mis Ionawr 1986, a derbyniodd hi ei gradd baglor mewn astudiaethau cyfathrebu gyda phwyslais ar newyddiaduraeth ym mis Mai, 1987.[26][27][28][29]

Ym mis Mehefin, 2008, rhoddodd y gymdeithas cyn-fyfyrwyr o North Idaho College y wobr 'Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award' i Palin.[26][30]

Gyrfa gynnar a phriodas[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ar ôl graddio, gweithiodd hi fel darllenydd chwaraeon ar gyfer KTUU-TV a KTVA-TV yn Anchorage,[31][32] a fel gohebydd chwaraeon ar gyfer Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman,[33][34] yn cyflawni uchelgais cynnar.[35]

Ym mis Awst 1988, priododd ei chariad o ysgol uwchradd, Todd Palin.[36] Yn dilyn genedigaeth eu plentyn cyntaf, ym mis Ebrill 1989, helpodd ei gŵr gyda'i fusnes pysgota masnachol.[37]

Gyrfa wleidyddol cynnar[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Dinas cyngor[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Etholwyd Palin i Gyngor Dinas Wasilla ym 1992 drwy ennill 530 pleidleisiau i 310.[38][39] Trwy gydol ei chyfnod yn y cyngor dinas a'r gweddill ei gyrfa wleidyddol, mae Palin wedi bod yn aelod o'r Blaid Weriniaethol ers cofrestru ym 1982.[40]

Maer o Wasilla[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Roedd Palin yn pryderu ni fyddai'r refeniw o'r dreth gwerthiant yn Wasilla cael ei wario'n ddoeth.[41] Penderfynodd Palin i redeg am faer o Wasilla ym 1996; trechodd hi'r maer periglor John Stein[36] 651 i 440 pleidleisiau.[42] Mae ei gofiannydd yn disgrifio ei hymgyrch fel targedu gwariant gwastraffus a threthi uchel;[18] fodd bynnag, cyhuddodd ei hwrthwynebydd, Stein, fod Palin wedi defnyddio erthyliadrheolaeth gwn, a therfynau tymor fel materion yn yr ymgyrch.[43] Roedd yr etholiad yn amhleidiol, er bod y Blaid Weriniaethol o Alaska yn darlledu hysbysebion ar gyfer Palin.[43] Enillodd hi yn erbyn Stein eto, ym 1999, 909 pleidleisiau i 292.[44] Ym 2002, cwblhaodd hi ei hail dymor fel maer o Wasilla. Mae'r siarter ddinas yn rhwystro'r maer rhag cael ei ethol mwy na ddwywaith.[45] Cafodd ei hethol i "Alaska Conference of Mayors" ym 1999.[46]

Llywodraethwr o Alaska[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Dyma Palin yn ymweld â milwyr o'r "Alaska National Guard", 24 Gorffennaf, 2007

Ym 2006, yn rhedeg ar lwyfan i lanhau llywodraeth, trechodd Palin y llywodraethwr periglor Frank Murkowski yn y cynradd.[47][48] Roedd hi’n rhedeg gyda Sean Parnell,[49] sydd nawr wedi llwyddo Palin fel Llywodraethwr o Alaska.[50]

Cyfradd gymeradwyaeth[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Fel llywodraethwr o Alaska, mae ei chyfradd gymeradwyaeth wedi amrywio o uchafbwynt o 93% ym mis Mai 2007 i isafbwynt o 54% ym mis Mai 2009.[51]

Dyddiad Cymeradwyaeth Anghymeradwyaeth Sefydliad Poliau
15 Mai, 2007[52] 93% Heb adrodd Dittman Research
30 Mai, 2007 [citation needed] 89% Heb adrodd Ivan Moore Research
19–21 Hydref, 2007[53] 83% 11% Ivan Moore Research
10 Ebrill, 2008[54] 73% 7% Rasmussen Reports
17 Mai, 2008[55] 69% 9% Rasmussen Reports
24–25 Gorffenaf, 2008[56] 80% Heb adrodd Hays Research Group
30 Gorffenaf, 2008[56] 64% 14% Rasmussen Reports
20–22 Medi, 2008[57] 68% Heb adrodd Ivan Moore Research
7 Hydref, 2008[58] 63% 37% Rasmussen Reports
24–25 Mawrth, 2009[59] 59.8% 34.9% Hays Research
4–5 Mai, 2009[59] 54% 41.6% Hays Research
14–18 Mehefin, 2009[60] 56% 35% Global Strategy Group

Ymgyrch is-arlywyddol 2008[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Roedd nifer o sylwebyddion ceidwadol wedi cwrdd â Palin yn haf 2007.[61] Roedd rhai ohonynt, fel Bill Kristol, wedi annog McCain i ddewis Palin fel ei henwebai is-arlywyddol, gan ddweud y byddai ei phresenoldeb ar y tocyn yn rhoi brwdfrydedd i’r Dde Crefyddol o’r Blaid Weriniaethol, ac hefyd byddai ei dinodedd yn ffactor cadarnhaol.[62]

Cynhaliwyd yr etholiad ar 4 Tachwedd, ac roedd y cyfryngau yn rhagweld Obama fel yr enillydd am 11:00 EST.[63] Yn ei araith consesiwn, diolchodd McCain Palin, yn ei galw "un o'r ymgyrchwyr gorau rwyf wedi gweld erioed, ac yn llais trawiadol newydd yn ein plaid am ddiwygio a'r egwyddorion sydd bob amser wedi bod ein cryfder mwyaf."[63]

Delwedd cyhoeddus[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Dyma Palin yn y gala Time 100 lle cafodd ei henwi fel un o'r 'Pobl Mwyaf Dylanwadol yn y Byd'[64]

Un mis ar ôl i McCain ddewis Palin fel yr enwebai is-lywydd, fe'i gwelwyd yn fwy ffafriol ac anffafriol ymhlith pleidleiswyr nag ei hwrthwynebydd, Seneddwr Delaware Joe Biden.[65] Roedd y mwyafrif o wylwyr y ddadl is-arlywyddol 2008 yn meddwl bod perfformiad Biden yn well na pherfformiad Palin.[65][66]

Bywyd personol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Priododd Sarah a Todd Palin ym mis Awst 29, 1988, ac mae ganddynt bump o blant: meibion Track Cj (ganwyd ym mis Ebrill 1989)[67][68] a Trig Paxson Van (ganwyd ym mis Ebrill 2008), a merched Bristol Sheeran Marie[69] (ganwyd ym mis Hydref 1990), Willow Bianca Faye (ganwyd ym 1994), a Piper Indi Grace (ganwyd ym 2001).[70][71] Diagnoswyd ei phlentyn ieuaf, Trig, gyda syndrom Down cyn ei enedigaeth.[72]

Mae gan Palin ddau o wyrion.[73][74] Roedd ei gŵr Todd yn gweithio ar gyfer y cwmni olew Prydeinig BP fel gweithredwr cynhyrchu ar y maes olew, yn ymddeol ym 2009, ac yn berchen ar gwmni pysgota masnachol.[41][75]

Bedyddwyd Palin "Catholig fel newydd-anedig" gan fod ei mam, Sally, wedi ei magu yn Gatholig. Fodd bynnag, dechreuodd y teulu Heath "mynd i eglwysi anenwadol" wedi hynny.[76] Yn ddiweddarach, ymunodd ei theulu "Wasilla Assembly of God", eglwys Pentecostaidd;[77] roedd Palin yn mynd i'r eglwys hon tan 2002.[78] Wedyn, trosglwyddodd Palin i Wasilla Bible Church.[79] Pan mae hi yn Juneau, mae hi'n mynd i Juneau Christian Center, eglwys Assembly of God.[80] Ar ôl i McCain ddewis Palin fel yr enwebai, postiodd nifer o adroddiadau newyddion ei bod hi'n ferch cyntaf Pentecostaidd i redeg am is-lywydd.[81] Dydy Palin ddim yn defnyddio'r gair "Pentecostaidd" ond yn dweud ei bod hi'n "Cristion sy'n credu yn y Beibl".[76]

Cyhoeddiadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Gweler hefyd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

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  3. "Amazing America with Sarah Palin Episodes". TV Guide. http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/amazing-america-with-sarah-palin/episodes/648246. Adalwyd May 15, 2014.
  4. "Former Reality Star Sarah Palin Returns to Television". The Daily Beast. February 21, 2014. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/02/21/former-reality-star-sarah-palin-returns-to-television.html. Adalwyd May 15, 2014.
  5. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/07/28/all-sarah-all-the-time-inside-sarah-palin-s-new-tv-channel.html The Daily Beast July 28, 2014
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  7. "Family Support: Gov.
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