Daeargryn Nepal 2015

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Daeargryn Nepal 2015
Daeargryn Nepal.PNG
Dyddiad 25 Ebrill 2015 (2015-04-25)
Amser cychwyn 11:56:26 Amser Nepal[1]
Maint 7.8Mw[1] neu 8.1 Ms
Dyfnder 15.0 km (9.3 mi)[1]
Canolbwynt 28°08′49″N 84°42′29″E / 28.147°N 84.708°E / 28.147; 84.708Cyfesurynnau: 28°08′49″N 84°42′29″E / 28.147°N 84.708°E / 28.147; 84.708[1]
Math Ffawlt gwthiad[1]
Ardaloedd a effeith'd
Difrod ≈$5 biliwn (tua 25% o'r GDP)[2]
Ôl-gryniad 7.3Mw ar 12 Mai am 12:51[3]
6.7Mw ar 26 Ebrill am 12:54[4]
Nifer ôl-gryniadau( >=4ML )=311 [5]
Anafedigion 8,786 wedi'u lladd yn Nepal (swyddogol) ac 8,947 i gyd[6][7] Anafwyd 21,952 (swyddogol)[6]

Lladdwyd dros 8,800 o bobl gan Ddaeargryn Nepal 2015 (neu Ddaeargryn Gorkha) ac anafwyd oddeutu 23,000.[5][8] Roedd daearegwyr wedi rhagweld y byddai daeargryn angheuol yn taro ryw bryd oherwydd natur y creigiau, pensaerniaeth leol ayb.[9][10]

Teimlwyd y crynodau cyntaf ar 25 Ebrill 2015, a thyfodd i faint 7.8Mw[1] neu 8.1Ms ac uchafbwynt o IX (Treisgar) ar Raddfa Dwysedd Mercalli. Roedd canolbwynt y ddaeargryn wedi'i lleoli i'r dwyrain o ardal Lamjung, oddeutu 15 km (9.3 mi) o dan wyneb y Ddaear.[1] Hwn oedd trychineb gwaethaf Nepal ers 1934 pan drawod Daeargryn Nepal–Bihar.[11][12][13]

Creodd y cryndodau dirlithriadau a rhewlithriadau eraill, gan gynnwys sawl eirlithrada (neu avalanches) ar Fynydd Everest, gan ladd 19 o ddringwyr,[14] sef y golled mwyaf mewn un diwrnod ar y mynydd ers cadw cofnodion.[15] Canlyniad arall i gryndodau'r ddaeargryn oedd eirlithrad anferthol yn nyffryn Langtang, ble collwyd 250 o bobl.[16][17]

Gwnaed cannoedd o filoedd o bobl yn ddigartref o fewn munudau a lloriwyd sawl pentref cyfan mewn sawl rhan o Nepal.[18] Dymchwelwyd llawer o adeiladau hynafol, nifer ohonynt oddi fewn i Safle Treftadaeth y Byd UNESCO yn Nyffryn Kathmandu.[19]

Ôl-gryniadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Parhaodd yr ôl-gryniadau drwy Nepal gyfan mewn ysbeidiau o 15-20 munud, gydag un ôl-gryniad o faint 6.7 ar 26 Ebrill (am 12.54 Amser Nepal).[4]

Yr ôl-gryniad mwyaf oedd hwnnw am 12.35 ar y 12fed o Fai 2015 - a oedd o faint (Mw) o 7.3.[20] Roedd canolbwynt y ddaeargryn hon yn nes at y ffin gyda Tsieina, rhwng prifddinas y wlad Kathmandu a Mynydd Everest.[21] Lladdwyd dros 200 o bobl ac anafwyd dros 2,500.[22]

Colledion ac anafiadau yn ôl gwlad
Gwlad Marwolaeth Anafiadau Ffynhonnell
 Nepal > 8,786 > 22,304 [6][23]
 India 130 560 [24]
 Gweriniaeth Pobl Tsieina 27 383 [25]
 Bangladesh 4 200 [26]
Cyfanswm > 8,947 > 23,447

Effaith ar yr economi[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Difrod i ffordd yn Nepal

Gyda chynnyrch mewnwladol crynswth (GDP) o oddeutu USD$19.921 biliwn,[27] Nepal yw un o wledydd tlotaf Asia heb iddi lawer o adnoddau i ailadeiladu ar raddfa mor fawr a hyn.[28] Hyd yn oed cyn y Ddaeargryn roedd yn fwriad ganddi geisio codi pedair gwaith yn fwy o arian ar ei hisadeileddau (infrastructure) angenrheidiol.[28] Amcangyfrifir y bydd y golled i'r economi oddeutu 35% o GDP. Dywedodd llefarydd ar ran yr Asian Development Bank (ADB) ei fod yn fwriad ganddynt gynnig nawdd o USD$3 ar unwaith i Nepal i gychwyn y gwaith o ailadeiladu a hyd at USD$200 miliwn dros y cyfnod cychwynol.[28]

Yn ôl yr economegydd Rajiv Biswas, bydd angen o leiaf USD$5 biliwn, hy oddeutu 20% o GDP Nepal.[28][29]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "M7.8 – 34 km ESE of Lamjung, Nepal". United States Geological Survey. 25 April 2015. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us20002926. Adalwyd 12 Mai 2015.
  2. Insurance in Asia: Narrow-minded, economist.com.
  3. "M6.6 - 49km E of Lamjung, Nepal". http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000292y#general_summary.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "M6.7 - 17km S of Kodari, Nepal". usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us200029bt#general_summary.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Aftershocks of Gorkha Earthquake". National Seismological Centre, Nepal. http://www.seismonepal.gov.np/.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Incident Report of Earthquake 2015". Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Portal. drrportal.gov.np. http://drrportal.gov.np/. Adalwyd 28 Mai 2015.
  7. "Nepal earthquake death toll rises to 8,413". The Times of India. 7 Mai 2015. http://m.timesofindia.com/world/south-asia/Nepal-earthquake-death-toll-rises-to-8413/articleshow/47187088.cms. Adalwyd 9 Mai 2015.
  8. Chidanand Rajghatta (26 Ebrill 2015). "Is this the 'Big Himalayan Quake' we feared?". The Times of India. Adalwyd 26 Ebrill 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  9. "Experts had warned for decades that Nepal was vulnerable to a killer quake". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/experts-had-warned-for-decades-that-nepal-was-vulnerable-to-a-killer-quake/2015/04/25/0275959e-eb78-11e4-9a6a-c1ab95a0600b_story.html. Adalwyd 29 Ebrill 2015.
  10. Colin Stark (26 Ebrill 2015). "Nepal earthquake: 'A tragedy waiting to happen' - CNN.com". CNN. Adalwyd 29 Ebrill 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  11. "What 1934 Told Nepal to Expect About the Next Big Quake". http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2015/04/26/what-1934-told-nepal-to-expect-about-the-next-big-quake/.
  12. "Timeline: Nepal 2015 to 1934, the worst quake disasters in the last 80 years". http://indianexpress.com/article/world/neighbours/timeline-nepal-2015-to-nepal-1934-the-worst-earthquake-disasters-in-the-last-80-years. Adalwyd 28 Ebrill 2015.
  13. "Nepal earthquake: Eerie reminder of 1934 tragedy". http://www.dnaindia.com/world/report-nepal-earthquake-eerie-reminder-of-1934-tragedy-2080754.
  14. nytimes.com 2015-04-27 katmandu-nepal-fear-loss-and-devastation, nytimes.com; adalwyd 28 Ebrill 2015.
  15. "Trapped at 20,000 feet: Hundreds of Everest climbers await choppers as supplies run low". Fox News. The Associated Press. 26 Ebrill 2015. Adalwyd 26 April 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  16. Dr Dave (29 Ebrill 2015). "Landslides in Langtang during and after the Nepal earthquake". AGU Blogosphere. http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2015/04/29/langtang-1/. Adalwyd 1 Mai 2015.
  17. "Up to 250 missing after avalanche hits Nepal trekking route". "Mail Online". Adalwyd 28 Ebrill 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. Dr Dave (29 April 2015). "Landslides in Langtang during and after the Nepal earthquake". AGU Blogosphere. http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2015/04/29/langtang-1/. Adalwyd 1 Mai 2015.
  19. Colin Stark (26 April 2015). "Nepal earthquake: 'A tragedy waiting to happen' - CNN.com". CNN. Adalwyd 29 Ebrill 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date=, |date= (help)
  20. [url=http://naturaldisasters.tk/ The Natural Disasters;] adalwyd 23 Mai 2015
  21. "Nepal earthquake, magnitude 7.3, strikes near Everest". BBC News. 12 Mai 2015. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-32701385.
  22. Manesh Shrestha (14 Mai 2015). "Death toll from this week's Nepal earthquake rises above 125". CNN. Adalwyd 14 Mai 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  23. "National Emergency Operation Centre". National Emergency Operation Centre (Nepal Govt.) on Twitter (in Nepali). 3 Mai 2015. Adalwyd 3 May 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  24. "Quake toll in India now 78". 29 Ebrill 2015. http://zeenews.india.com/news/india/quake-toll-in-india-now-78_1587267.html. Adalwyd 4 Mai 2015.
  25. "25 dead, 383 injured in Tibet following Nepal earthquake". Xinhua. 28 Ebrill 2015. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-04/28/c_134193125.htm. Adalwyd 5 Mai 2015.
  26. "4 killed, 18 Bangladesh districts affected in earthquake, says govt". Bdnews24.com. Adalwyd 26 Ebrill 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  27. "Nepal Economy Devastated Following Earthquake". http://primepair.com/global-outlook/nepal-economy-devastated-following-earthquake-27-04-2015. Adalwyd 27 Ebrill 2015.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 "Nepal’s Slowing Economy Set for Freefall Without Global Help". Bloomberg Business. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-26/nepal-s-slowing-economy-set-for-freefall-without-world-s-help. Adalwyd 26 Ebrill 2015.
  29. "The Latest on Nepal Quake: Aid arriving as deaths top 4,000". The New Indian Express. http://www.newindianexpress.com/world/The-Latest-on-Nepal-Quake-Aid-Arriving-as-Deaths-Top-4000/2015/04/27/article2786074.ece. Adalwyd 4 Mai 2015.