Daeargryn Nepal 2015

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Daeargryn Nepal 2015
Daeargryn Nepal.PNG
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<div style="font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%; z-index:90; position: relative; top: -1.5em; width: 6em; Gwall mynegiad: Heb adnabod y nod atalnodi "[".">Kathmandu
UTC time ??
ISC event
USGS-ANSS
Dyddiad * 25 Ebrill 2015 (2015-04-25)
Cychwyn (amser) * 11:56:26 Amser Nepal[1]
Dyddiad (lleol)
Amser (lleol)
Nerth 7.8Mw[1] neu 8.1 Ms
Dyfnder 15.0 km (9.3 mi)[1]
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Math Ffawlt gwthiad[1]
Ardaloedd a effeithiwyd
Difrod ≈$5 biliwn (tua 25% o'r GDP)[2]
Ôl-siociau 7.3Mw ar 12 Mai am 12:51[3]
6.7Mw ar 26 Ebrill am 12:54[4]
Nifer ôl-gryniadau( >=4ML )=311 [5]
Anafedigion 8,786 wedi'u lladd yn Nepal (swyddogol) ac 8,947 i gyd[6][7] Anafwyd 21,952 (swyddogol)[6]
Deprecated  See documentation.

Lladdwyd dros 8,800 o bobl gan Ddaeargryn Nepal 2015 (neu Ddaeargryn Gorkha) ac anafwyd oddeutu 23,000.[5][8] Roedd daearegwyr wedi rhagweld y byddai daeargryn angheuol yn taro ryw bryd oherwydd natur y creigiau, pensaerniaeth leol ayb.[9][10]

Teimlwyd y crynodau cyntaf ar 25 Ebrill 2015, a thyfodd i faint 7.8Mw[1] neu 8.1Ms ac uchafbwynt o IX (Treisgar) ar Raddfa Dwysedd Mercalli. Roedd canolbwynt y ddaeargryn wedi'i lleoli i'r dwyrain o ardal Lamjung, oddeutu 15 km (9.3 mi) o dan wyneb y Ddaear.[1] Hwn oedd trychineb gwaethaf Nepal ers 1934 pan drawod Daeargryn Nepal–Bihar.[11][12][13]

Creodd y cryndodau dirlithriadau a rhewlithriadau eraill, gan gynnwys sawl eirlithrada (neu avalanches) ar Fynydd Everest, gan ladd 19 o ddringwyr,[14] sef y golled mwyaf mewn un diwrnod ar y mynydd ers cadw cofnodion.[15] Canlyniad arall i gryndodau'r ddaeargryn oedd eirlithrad anferthol yn nyffryn Langtang, ble collwyd 250 o bobl.[16][17]

Gwnaed cannoedd o filoedd o bobl yn ddigartref o fewn munudau a lloriwyd sawl pentref cyfan mewn sawl rhan o Nepal.[18] Dymchwelwyd llawer o adeiladau hynafol, nifer ohonynt oddi fewn i Safle Treftadaeth y Byd UNESCO yn Nyffryn Kathmandu.[19]

Ôl-gryniadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Parhaodd yr ôl-gryniadau drwy Nepal gyfan mewn ysbeidiau o 15-20 munud, gydag un ôl-gryniad o faint 6.7 ar 26 Ebrill (am 12.54 Amser Nepal).[4]

Yr ôl-gryniad mwyaf oedd hwnnw am 12.35 ar y 12fed o Fai 2015 - a oedd o faint (Mw) o 7.3.[20] Roedd canolbwynt y ddaeargryn hon yn nes at y ffin gyda Tsieina, rhwng prifddinas y wlad Kathmandu a Mynydd Everest.[21] Lladdwyd dros 200 o bobl ac anafwyd dros 2,500.[22]

Colledion ac anafiadau yn ôl gwlad
Gwlad Marwolaeth Anafiadau Ffynhonnell
 Nepal > 8,786 > 22,304 [6][23]
 India 130 560 [24]
 Gweriniaeth Pobl Tsieina 27 383 [25]
 Bangladesh 4 200 [26]
Cyfanswm > 8,947 > 23,447

Effaith ar yr economi[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Difrod i ffordd yn Nepal

Gyda chynnyrch mewnwladol crynswth (GDP) o oddeutu USD$19.921 biliwn,[27] Nepal yw un o wledydd tlotaf Asia heb iddi lawer o adnoddau i ailadeiladu ar raddfa mor fawr a hyn.[28] Hyd yn oed cyn y Ddaeargryn roedd yn fwriad ganddi geisio codi pedair gwaith yn fwy o arian ar ei hisadeileddau (infrastructure) angenrheidiol.[28] Amcangyfrifir y bydd y golled i'r economi oddeutu 35% o GDP. Dywedodd llefarydd ar ran yr Asian Development Bank (ADB) ei fod yn fwriad ganddynt gynnig nawdd o USD$3 ar unwaith i Nepal i gychwyn y gwaith o ailadeiladu a hyd at USD$200 miliwn dros y cyfnod cychwynol.[28]

Yn ôl yr economegydd Rajiv Biswas, bydd angen o leiaf USD$5 biliwn, hy oddeutu 20% o GDP Nepal.[28][29]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "M7.8 – 34 km ESE of Lamjung, Nepal". United States Geological Survey. 25 April 2015. Cyrchwyd 12 Mai 2015.
  2. Insurance in Asia: Narrow-minded, economist.com.
  3. "M6.6 - 49km E of Lamjung, Nepal".
  4. 4.0 4.1 "M6.7 - 17km S of Kodari, Nepal". usgs.gov.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Aftershocks of Gorkha Earthquake". National Seismological Centre, Nepal.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Incident Report of Earthquake 2015". Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Portal. drrportal.gov.np. Cyrchwyd 28 Mai 2015.
  7. "Nepal earthquake death toll rises to 8,413". The Times of India. 7 Mai 2015. Cyrchwyd 9 Mai 2015.
  8. Chidanand Rajghatta (26 Ebrill 2015). "Is this the 'Big Himalayan Quake' we feared?". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/Is-this-the-Big-Himalayan-Quake-we-feared/articleshow/47055477.cms. Adalwyd 26 Ebrill 2015.
  9. "Experts had warned for decades that Nepal was vulnerable to a killer quake". Washington Post. Cyrchwyd 29 Ebrill 2015.
  10. Colin Stark (26 Ebrill 2015). "Nepal earthquake: 'A tragedy waiting to happen' - CNN.com". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/25/opinions/stark-nepal-earthquake-geology/. Adalwyd 29 Ebrill 2015.
  11. "What 1934 Told Nepal to Expect About the Next Big Quake".
  12. "Timeline: Nepal 2015 to 1934, the worst quake disasters in the last 80 years". Cyrchwyd 28 Ebrill 2015.
  13. "Nepal earthquake: Eerie reminder of 1934 tragedy".
  14. nytimes.com 2015-04-27 katmandu-nepal-fear-loss-and-devastation, nytimes.com; adalwyd 28 Ebrill 2015.
  15. "Trapped at 20,000 feet: Hundreds of Everest climbers await choppers as supplies run low". The Associated Press. Fox News. 26 Ebrill 2015. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2015/04/26/8-dead-as-quake-triggered-avalanche-sweeps-everest-in-nepal. Adalwyd 26 April 2015.
  16. Dr Dave (29 Ebrill 2015). "Landslides in Langtang during and after the Nepal earthquake". AGU Blogosphere. AGU Blogosphere. Cyrchwyd 1 Mai 2015.
  17. "Up to 250 missing after avalanche hits Nepal trekking route". "Mail Online". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-3059082/Up-250-missing-avalanche-hits-Nepal-trekking-route.html. Adalwyd 28 Ebrill 2015.
  18. Dr Dave (29 April 2015). "Landslides in Langtang during and after the Nepal earthquake". AGU Blogosphere. AGU Blogosphere. Cyrchwyd 1 Mai 2015.
  19. Colin Stark (26 April 2015). "Nepal earthquake: 'A tragedy waiting to happen' - CNN.com". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/25/opinions/stark-nepal-earthquake-geology/. Adalwyd 29 Ebrill 2015.
  20. [url=http://naturaldisasters.tk/ The Natural Disasters;] adalwyd 23 Mai 2015
  21. "Nepal earthquake, magnitude 7.3, strikes near Everest". BBC News. 12 Mai 2015.
  22. Manesh Shrestha (14 Mai 2015). "Death toll from this week's Nepal earthquake rises above 125". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/14/asia/nepal-earthquake/. Adalwyd 14 Mai 2015.
  23. "National Emergency Operation Centre" (yn Nepali). National Emergency Operation Centre (Nepal Govt.) on Twitter. 3 Mai 2015. https://twitter.com/NEoCOfficial. Adalwyd 3 May 2015.
  24. "Quake toll in India now 78". Zee News. 29 Ebrill 2015. Cyrchwyd 4 Mai 2015.
  25. "25 dead, 383 injured in Tibet following Nepal earthquake". Xinhua. 28 Ebrill 2015. Cyrchwyd 5 Mai 2015.
  26. "4 killed, 18 Bangladesh districts affected in earthquake, says govt". Bdnews24.com. http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/04/27/4-killed-18-bangladesh-districts-affected-in-earthquake-says-govt. Adalwyd 26 Ebrill 2015.
  27. "Nepal Economy Devastated Following Earthquake". PrimePair. Cyrchwyd 27 Ebrill 2015.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 "Nepal's Slowing Economy Set for Freefall Without Global Help". Bloomberg Business. Cyrchwyd 26 Ebrill 2015.
  29. "The Latest on Nepal Quake: Aid arriving as deaths top 4,000". The New Indian Express. Cyrchwyd 4 Mai 2015.