Nodyn:Hanes dosbarthu teyrnasoedd mewn bioleg

Oddi ar Wicipedia
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Linnaeus
1735[1]
Haeckel
1866[2]
Chatton
1925[3][4]
Copeland
1938[5][6]
Whittaker
1969[7]
Woese et al.
1977[8][9]
Woese et al.
1990[10]
Cavalier-Smith
1993[11][12][13]
Cavalier-Smith
1998[14][15][16]
2 teyrnas 3 teyrnas 2 ymerodraeth 4 teyrnas 5 teyrnas 6 kingdoms 3 parth 8 teyrnas 6 teyrnas
(dim) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria Eubacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea Archaebacteria
Eukaryota Protista Protista Protista Eucarya Archezoa Protosoa
Protosoa
Chromista Chromista
Planhigion Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae
Ffwng Ffwng Ffwng Ffwng
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia


  1. Linnaeus, C. (1735). Systemae Naturae, sive regna tria naturae, systematics proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species.
  2. Haeckel, E. (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Reimer, Berlin.
  3. Chatton, É. (1925). "Pansporella perplexa. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires". Annales des Sciences Naturelles - Zoologie et Biologie Animale 10-VII: 1–84.
  4. Chatton, É. (1937). Titres et Travaux Scientifiques (1906–1937). Sette, Sottano, Italy.
  5. Copeland, H. (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quarterly Review of Biology 13: 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568.
  6. Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, p. 6, [1]. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.4474. External link in |publisher= (help)
  7. Whittaker, R. H. (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science 163 (3863): 150–60. Bibcode 1969Sci...163..150W. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760.
  8. Woese, C. R.; Balch, W. E.; Magrum, L. J.; Fox, G. E.; Wolfe, R. S. (August 1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution 9 (4): 305–311. doi:10.1007/BF01796092. PMID 408502.
  9. Woese, C. R.; Fox, G. E. (November 1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 74 (11): 5088–90. Bibcode 1977PNAS...74.5088W. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.11.5088. PMC 432104. PMID 270744. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=432104.
  10. Woese, C.; Kandler, O.; Wheelis, M. (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87 (12): 4576–9. Bibcode 1990PNAS...87.4576W. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMC 54159. PMID 2112744. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/87/12/4576.
  11. Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998), "A revised six-kingdom system of life", Biological Reviews 73 (03): 203–66, doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1998.tb00030.x, PMID 9809012, http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=685
  12. Cavalier-Smith, T. (2004), "Only six kingdoms of life", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 271: 1251–62, doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2705, PMC 1691724, PMID 15306349, http://www.cladocera.de/protozoa/cavalier-smith_2004_prs.pdf, adalwyd 2010-04-29
  13. Cavalier-Smith T (June 2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC 2880060. PMID 20031978. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=20031978.