Dyddiadur William Bulkeley, Brynddu, Môn

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Prif erthygl: Dyddiaduron amgylcheddol Cymreig

Mae dyddiadur William Bulkeley yn enghraifft o ddyddiadur cynnar sy'n disgrifio cymdeithas, materion amaethyddol ac amgylcheddol Ynys Môn, rhwng 1734 - 1760.

Caiff ei ystyried yn glasur a esgorodd ar sawl llyfr gan E. Richards ac eraill, a chynhyrchiad dramatig [1]. Gellir ei ystyried ar lefel tebyg i ddyddiadur y naturiaethwr Gilbert White, Selborne. Yn wahanol i hanes dyddiadur White nad yw erioed wedi bod allan o brint ers ei farwolaeth, ni chafodd llawysgrif gwreiddiol William Bulkeley (WB) ei drawsgrifio yn ei gyfanrwydd, na'i ddigideiddio, tan yn ddiweddar iawn. Mae'r trawsgrifiad hwnnw i'w gweld yn gyfochrog a'r ddelwedd o'r llawysgrif ar wefan Adran Dogfennau Hanesyddol Prifysgol Bangor. Mae cofnodion elfennau amgylcheddol y trawsgrifiad i'w gweld ar Dywyddiadur Llên Natur gyda chofnodion eraill o'r un dyddiad. Hyd yma, nid yw wedi'i ddiweddaru, o ran iaith.

Cefndir y llawysgrif[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Yn Archifau'r Brifysgol ym Mangor ceir Dyddiaduron William Bulkeley. Mae rhain ymysg y dystiolaeth ddogfennol bwysicaf ar hanes bywyd ar Ynys Môn yn y 18g. Mae yna ddwy gyfrol y gyntaf yn ymdrin â'r cyfnod 1734 - 1743, tra bod yr ail yn ymwneud â'r blynyddoedd 1747 - 1760. Nid yw trydedd gyfrol (1743 - 1747) wedi goroesi gwaetha'r modd. Mae'r ddwy gyfrol sydd gennym yn cynnwys dros fil o dudalennau o lawysgrifen fechan ac sy'n ffenstr amhrisiadwy o fywyd y mân sgweier o'r Brynddu, Llanfechell, Môn.[1]

Iaith, Cynnwys ac arddull y dyddiadur[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Saesneg yw iaith pennaf y dyddiadur.

Cyffredinol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Crynodeb o gynnwys y dyddiaduron[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Mae crynswth y dyddiaduron yn ymdrin â materion ffermio, megis pryd y dechreuodd aredig neu hel gwair. Nodwyd prisiau nwyddau yn y farchnad a'r cyflogau a dalodd i weision a llafurwyr. Cadwodd nodiadau dyddiol manwl am y tywydd a chyfeiriad y gwynt[1]. Buddiol fydd cymharu'r elfennau hyn gyda Dyddiadur Robert Bulkeley, un o'i hynafiaid, ganrif ynghynt

Ei fywyd teuluol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ganwyd William Bulkeley ar 4 Tachwedd 1691. Disgrifiodd ei gydnabod enwog William Morris ef fel dyn caredig a gonest. Cafodd ddau o blant gyda'i wraig Jane Lewis, William (bu farw 1751) a Mary. Achosodd Mary drafferthion di-ben-draw iddo, yn bennaf trwy ei phriodas â'r anturiaethwr a mor-leidr Fortunatus Wright, bragwr o Lerpwl. Gadawodd marwolaeth sydyn Wright yn Yr Eidal Mary heb nemor geiniog i'w henw a bu'n faich ar ei thad unwaith yn rhagor.[1] Roedd ganddo gi o'r enw Ranter.

Ei fywyd yn ei gymdeithas[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Fel uchelwr disgwylid iddo gymryd rhan amlwg ym materion y dydd yn y sir. Fel Ustus Heddwch byddai'n mynychu'r Sesiynau Chwarter ym Miwmares ac yn gweinyddu cyfiawnder ei hun pe bai angen. Nododd yn nechrau'r gyfrol gyntaf rhai o'r gwahanol achosion, gan ddisgrifio mewn modd bywiog y dulliau y gweinyddwyd y gyfraith. Dywed unwaith fod y barnwr wedi cyrraedd y llys yn feddw neu weithiau swyddogion yn absennol o'r sesiynau. Disgrifiodd hefyd y cymdeithasu oedd ynghlwm a chyfarfodydd y llys a'r symiau o arian a wariodd o'i bwrs ei hun ar fwyd a diod i eraill.

Iechyd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Mae digwyddiad yn ymwneud a'i gi anwes yn dangos "meddygaeth DIY" y cyfnod! Awst. 29. [1734]: My poor dog "Ranter" was bit by a viper, which I killed and immediately opened and took out her fat which was near an ounce in weight and by the time I had come home from the reapers where the poor dog was bit, the part was swollen mightily, and putting a spatula in the fire and making it red hot and holding it over ye place so bit and anointing the part at the same time with fat melted and applied very hot, the dog by night was pretty well, ye swelling almost vanished and I hope he will do very well. Soniodd droeon am hela efo'r ci hwn tan ei farw yn 1748 yn ddeunaw mlwydd oed o'r bron.

Bu'n gwaelu drwy gydol haf 1760, a cheir y cofnod olaf yn y dyddiadur ar 28 Medi lle. Nododd y diwrnod hwnnw fel arfer, cyfeiriad y gwynt a chyflwr y tywydd. Claddwyd William Bulkeley yn eglwys Llanfechell ar 28 Hydref 1760 gan adael i ni waddol o gyfoeth gwirioneddol o wybodaeth yn ymwneud â bywyd mân sgweier ym Môn yn y 18g.

Addysg[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Crefydd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cymerodd ran amlwg yn yr Eglwys Anglicanaidd ac, er nad oedd yn warden yn ei eglwys leol yn Llanfechell, cyflawnodd lawer o ddyletswyddau'r swydd honno. Gwnaeth amryw o sylwadau digon difrïol am bersoniaid lleol, yn arbennig ei berson ei hun yn Llanfechell. Awgrymodd sawl gwaith nad oedd hwnnw fawr o bregethwr. Honna rhai fod ganddo gydymdeimlad â'r Methodistiaid cynnar er nad oes unrhyw dystiolaeth o hynny yn y dyddiaduron, ar wahân i un digwyddiad pan brydlesodd fferm Clwchdernog ym mhlwyf Llanddeusant i William Pritchard, dyn a ystyrir yn un o Anghydffurfwyr cyntaf Môn ac a gafodd ei erlid o sawl tenantiaeth oherwydd ei ddaliadau.

Ei fywyd gwleidyddol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Rhoddodd sylw i ddigwyddiadau cenedlaethol a rhyngwladol ei ddydd. Yn 1748 crybwylla Ryfel yr Olyniaeth Awstriaidd a llofnododd Cytundeb Heddwch Aix-la-Chapelle a ddaeth â'r rhyfel hwnnw i ben. Yn 1752 ceir cofnod ganddo am y newid yng nghalendr Prydain ac Iwerddon (gweler Y Calendr yn Nyddiadur Robert Bulkeley). Yn 1752 daeth yn rhyfel drachefn, pan dorrodd y "Rhyfel Saith Mlynedd" allan rhwng Prydain a Ffrainc. Rhoddwyd gorchymyn i Bulkeley fel Ustus Heddwch i chwilio Sir Fôn am 'forwyr crwydrol'.

Un o'r Whigiaid oedd Bulkeley, er nad oedd yn llwyr ymroddedig iddynt chwaith. Roedd ei gasineb tuag at Walpole yn amlwg a roedd boddhad yn ei eiriau pan glywodd bod Walpole wedi colli grym. Cyfeiriodd at y Torïaid yn ddilornus (yn ysgafn ar y cyfan) fel Jacobïaid. Gwaetha'r modd ni chawn, mae'n debyg, fyth wybod yr hyn a ddadlennai'r drydedd gyfrol, a oedd yn cynnwys cyfnod Gwrthryfel Jacobïaidd 1745.

Rhoddodd ei ddisgrifiadau o bedwar etholiad ddarlun o'r llwgrwobrwyo agored, llygredd a sgandal a nodweddai'r cyfnod. Gallai etholiadau'r d18g fod yn ddigwyddiadau bywiog iawn, yn arbennig pan oedd mwy nag un ymgeisydd. Seilwyd y pleidleisio ar nawddogaeth a noda Bulkeley iddo deimlo rheidrwydd i bleidleisio dros John Owen, Presaddfed yn etholiad 1741 gan fod Meyrickiaid Bodorgan o'i blaid.

Hamdden[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

ymladd ceiliogod. coits. hela adar

Y Calendr[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

18) Prydain? 0 0 1739 Cerys Jones, Myfyrwraig Ol-radd Daearyddiaeth, Adran Daearyddiaeth ac Astudiaethau Daear , Aberystwyth, natur—Old Christmas Eve 1739 – February 1740 “17 February [1784]... Snow covering the earth. Not as hard a season as since that which began in 1739 on Old Christmas Eve and ended the latter end of February following in 1740. [Weather notes]”

134) prydain 2 9 1752 0 0 0 gwefan DB—The Julian calendar was changed in favour of the Gregorian calendar (in Britain) after the 2nd September, 1752. That means that the 2nd September was the 2nd, but the next day magically became the 14th, and thus 11 days were 'lost' overnight! Dates around this change are always suspect, as authors did not always make it clear to which calendar they were referring. Unless otherwise stated, you should assume that specific dates in this record are either 'New Style' (or Gregorian) dates, or corrected to such.]

met office bracknell

135) Cymru a Lloegr 3 9 1752 www.historyorb.com/ natur—1752 - This day never happened nor next 10 as England adopts Gregorian Calendar. People riot thinking the govt stole 11 days of their lives

136) Prydain 14 9 1752 0 0 0 gwefan DB diwrnod cyntaf y calendar Gregoraidd

156) East Hoathly, Sussex 11 3 1755 0 0 0 Diary of a Village Shopkeeper Thomas Turner DB -- [nodyn ar gyfer amlygu newid dyddiadau] 11th Tuesday March 1755 ?to enter upon [the lease] at Lady Day next NS (NS = New Style Turner was writing less than 3 years after the adoption of the Gregorian calendarin Great Britain. He makes it clear that his lease was from new Lady Day [gwyl Fair] ie 25 March, not 5 April which still remains as Lady Day for fiscal purposes]

Codfnodion am y tywydd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

1741

Dechrau'r flwyddyn yn gyfnod oer deifiol gyda phobl ar lwgu ac yn cael eu gorfodi i droi allan eu gwartheg ym mis Mawrth: it is thought that one third of the cattle and horses within this county are already dead, no fodder being had for any money at this time WB

Cofnodion gwaith amaethyddol[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Digwyddiadau amgylcheddol perthnasol eraill yng nghyfnod y dyddiadur (1734-60)[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

1736

This spring day of 1736 [10 4 1736] the first swallow arrives at Stratton Strawless, Norfolk. It's noteworthy only because of what Robert Marsham does next. He writes the fact down. No-one has ever thought of doing such a thing. The science of phenology is born. (Woodward and Penn The Wrong Kind of Snow)

Severn area 0 12 1738 WHEN WINTER WAS CRUEL, erthygl gan D.W. Harris yn Pethau Penllyn? Archifdy Dolgellau (RT/CS) -- A sustained frost occurred in 1738. It began on Christmas Eve and continued to the following March. The Severn was frozen over.”

19) Prydain? 0 0 1739 natur -- Blwyddyn y Rhew Mawr Year of the Great Frost December 25 1739 – February 17 1740 “The Winter of 1739-40 was remarkable for its uncommon severity, and the occurrence of one of the most intense frosts that had ever been known in this Country; and which from its piercing cold and long continuance, has been recorded in our Annals by the Appellation of the Great Frost. It commenced on Xtmas day and lasted till the 17th of the following February, when it began to break up, but was not wholly dissipated till near the end of the month. xx Above London Bridge the Thames was completely frozen over, and tents and numerous booths were erected on it for selling liquors &c.Xx even a printing press was established xx Allen’a Hist. Lond. Vol. II 39.

20) Cymru? 0 0 1739 Bibliography of Welsh Ballads (yn Charnell-White 2009) natur -- 1739: wet harvest (BWB, no. 597)

22) Lloegr? 0 0 1739 Witze A & Kanipe J (2014) Island on Fire (Profile Books) natur -- In a letter to Reverend Newton in February 1784, Cowper gives thanks for a brief thaw: My dear Friend - I give you joy of a thaw that has put an end to a frost of nine weeks` continuance with very little interruption; the longest that has happened since the year 1739.

23) Lerpool 19 1 1739 0 0 0 dogfen DB—Mae'r rhew'n dal yma etto yn gethin a'r llonga'n methu chwimied ganddo (Llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon)

24) Prydain 20 4 1739 yn "Shaping the Day" (OUP) -- Whittaker 20th of April 1739 described halestorm `tho` it lasted no more than 20 minutes yet the water run down Tinkers lane almost enough to drive the mill"

25) Lyndon 25 12 1739 0 0 0 dyddidur Thomas Barker DB The atrociously cold winter of 1739-40 was one example. The freeze set in on Christmas Day, and on the night of 28 December a marrow-chilling east wind arose. Barker wrote: About three inches of snow fell in the first three days of January. After the snow it froze most days and every night until February 16th . . .

26) Lyndon 28 12 1739 0 0 0 dyddidur Thomas Barker DB—the strong freezing wind on Dec 28, 29 and 30 was so inexpressibly sharp that few who could help it cared to face it, and some Post boys who were forc'd to go into it were kill'd by it

32) Ynys Mon 0 0 1740 0 0 0 casgliad llythyrau'r Morrisiaid DB cynhaeaf trychinebus oedd yn 1740 ac erbyn y gwanwyn canlynol roedd yd cyn brined ag aur. Rhydd William Morris ddisgrifiad o effaith cynhaeaf gwael?"Ni fe^dd yr hen bobl ddyrnaid ond a brynasant am bris anfeidrol, 40/- y peged haidd?.mae yma sychdwr mawr, yr y^d a'r borfa wedi ei anafu, dim gwair i son amdano [1 peck = 9.1li.] ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39 yd y^d

34) Sir Ddinbych 0 0 1740 0 0 0 dogfen DB oherwydd rhew eithriadol 1740 roedd gwartheg y werin yn marw yn eu beudai a chwrw a gwin y cyfoethog yn rhewi yn y selerau, brain ac adar eraill yn disgyn i'r llawr wrth ehedeg wedi rhewi'mn gorn?Owen Thomas, cadwr gwenyn o sir Ddinbych, yn ysgrifennu na fu yng nghoffadwriaeth neb ddim mwu prinder bwud anifeiliaid?a'r flwyddyn 1740 a ddiweddodd mewn prinder a drudaniaeth mawr ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39

36) afon hafren 0 0 1740 0 0 0 dogfen DB ice flows several meters thick in places Elkins 1983

42) Prydain? 0 0 1740 Cerys Jones, Myfyrwraig Ol-radd Daearyddiaeth, Adran Daearyddiaeth ac Astudiaethau Daear , Aberystwyth, natur -- “The three first day of this week the Green and Court’s folk did raise the Malt pit, which pool have not been wholly dry since that dry summer after the great frost in 1740, and several other pools that was not up long before were now risen up....Also some farmer tells wheat will soon sell for 20s. a Bushel, and Barley and Oats from 12s. to 15s., which makes me reply that wheat will sell this year as cheap as ever, whatever the Barley and Oats will do, which are not very dear I believe, for the dryness is but in some places, and as good wheat with us as ever, for it was a wet Winter (and not a dry frosty as in 1740 for 13 weeks frost, then the wheat by the frost stifled in the earth) and a dry summer after a wet winter will bring plenty, but it is a year to bring down several proud farmers or renters that gave not God thanks for this Mercy when they received it. Hot and dry but very cloudy, wind west. Corn this year very clea45) Penfro a Wrecsam 0 0 1740 May, J. (1994) A Chronicle of Welsh Events (Cyh. Christopher Davies) -- high corn prices...food riots in Pembroke and Wrexham

46) Prydain 0 0 1740 https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/feb/08/without-records-weather-historians-turn-to-contemporary-accounts -- Two winters stand out as really extreme. 1683/84, known as the Great Frost, saw the river Thames in London freeze over – not for a day or two, or even a week, but for two months. This caused huge harm to the economy, as goods mostly travelled by water in those days, and all the ports were frozen solid. Many poor people could not find food, and starved to death, leading to widespread protests and riots.

Little more than 50 years later, the winter of 1739/40 was, if anything, even worse. This was the height of the prolonged climatic cooling known as the Little Ice Age, and much of Britain was gripped by a severe frost, which began on Christmas Day 1739 and lasted for almost two months.

47) London 1 1 1740 0 0 0 DB record cold day london -9C

48) llundain 11 1 1740 0 0 0 dogfen DB record cold day -9C?"gaeaf oer iawn "BBn.”

51) Lyndon 2 2 1740 0 0 0 dyddidur Thomas Barker DB ?.February 2nd when the Ice was the thickest, I found it 11.5 inches thick in a pond. Trees were split by the frost and plants shrivelled . . . The small birds which were plentiful before the frost were almost all destroyed by it and were three or four years before they recovered their usual numbers . . . This frost exceeded almost all others of which we have account. . .

52) De a dwyrain Lloegr 8 2 1740 Diary of a Parish Priest: A history of England Andrew Sangster 2002–1739 December 25. "Great Frost" in South an East England until February 8th [1740] 53) Prydain 0 5 1740 National Librarary of Wales Journal (haf) 1958 natur—second coldest May of C18

54) Selborne 0 6 1740 Gilbert White: The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne 1813 FACSIMILE The Ray Society 1993 -- .... For a well remember, after that dreadful winter 1739-40, that cold north-east winds continued to blow on through April and May and that these kinds of birds [Fieldfares and Redwings] (what few remained of them) did not depart as usual but were seen lingering about till the beginning of June [1740].

55) Llanfechell 16 8 1740 0 0 0 16th. The Wind S.S.W. very calm in the morning, and raining hard from before day till ii, when it intermitted for half an hour, & rained hard from that time till 8 at night; my people were this day thatching the Hay.

56) Ffrainc 0 9 1740 Daux et al.: An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research [tud]1415—Daux et al.: An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research [tud]1415

http://www.clim-past.net/8/1403/2012/cp-8-1403-2012.pdf

....... According to this procedure, the years with extremely hot growing season (April–September) are, by increasing order of GHD earliness: 1952, 1599, 1571, 1976, 1559, 1718, 1616, 1945, 1637, 1865, 1893, 1556, 1822 and 2003. Those with extremely cool growing season are, by decreasing order of GHD earliness: 1621, 1770, 1805, 1725, 1740, 1698, 1675 and 1816. Most of the extremely early/late years correspond to high/low values of the average Tmean at De Bilt and in Central England (Tmean rather than Tmax was chosen here for the comparison with our data because the Tmean records are longer). The exceptions are 1698, which is not cold while the grape harvests are late, and 1945 and 1952 which are not particularly hot while the harvest are early. ....... The 5 hottest years in the instrumental record (which extends only to 2006) are 1896, 1945, 1947, 1979 and 2003. All these years are above the average or extreme according to the GHD record.

60) Ynys Mon 0 0 1741 0 0 0 casgliad llythyrau'r Morrisiaid DB cynhaeaf trychinebus oedd yn 1740 ac erbyn y gwanwyn canlynol roedd yd cyn brined ag aur. Rhydd William Morris ddisgrifiad o effaith cynhaeaf gwael?"Ni fe^dd yr hen bobl ddyrnaid ond a brynasant am bris anfeidrol, 40/- y peged haidd?.mae yma sychdwr mawr, yr y^d a'r borfa wedi ei anafu, dim gwair i son amdano [1 peck = 9.1li.] ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39 yd y^d

64) Caerybi 26 4 1741 0 0 0 dogfen DB Gerwin oedd I bod hi wedi troi yn auaf gida chwi, hi fu ymma yn dywydd gwineu, ond mae hi wedi troi ar ymendio rawron, ond eisiau glaw sydd ymma yn fawr Llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon

65) Caergybi 27 4 1741 0 0 0 dogfen DB—Gwynt dwyrain coch gethin yn deifio'r blagur (Llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon)

66) Caergybi 27 4 1741 Llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon natur—Gwynt Dwyrain coch gethin yn deifio'r blagur lythyrau Morrisiaid Mon 27 Ebrill 1741

67) Cymru 0 5 1741 Bibliography of Welsh Ballads (yn Charnell-White 2009) natur—1741: snow in May; food prices rocket (eighteenth-century credit crunch!) (BWB, no. 680B)

69) Ewrop 25 12 1741 www.historyorb.com/ natur—1741 - Astronomer Anders Celcius introduces Centigrade temperature scale

73) de Cymru 14 10 1742 Kington, J. (2010) Climate and Weather Cyfres New Naturalist (Harper Collins) -- 13-14 October: severe storm. Inferred cyclonic situation/severe gales, south Wales, sea broke through at Cardiff, many vessels cast away

74) North Wales 0 0 1743 0 0 0 TCHSG1962 DB Diptheria had reached Europe for the first time about 1739. According to Thomas Pennant it appeard in north Wales in 1743 and Caernarfon in 1745.....G. Penrhyn Jones

75) Cymru? 0 0 1743 Bibliography of Welsh Ballads (yn Charnell-White 2009) natur—1743: comet and earthquake at an unnamed location (BWB, no. 756A) DAEARGRYN

76) llanerchymedd 30 10 1743 0 0 0 dogfen DB—I'me confined here by a most violent storm so shall miss this day's post Llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon

77) Swisdir 29 11 1743 gwefan natur—Great Comet of 1744 — First sighted on Nov. 29, 1743 as a dim 4th-magnitude object, this comet brightened rapidly as it approached the sun. Many textbooks often cite Philippe Loys de Cheseaux, of Lausanne, Switzerland as the discoverer, although his first sighting did not come until two weeks later. By mid-January 1744, the comet was described as 1st-magnitude with a 7-degree tail

79) Sianel? 0 2 1744 Dyddiadur John Saanderson, Owstwick, Swydd Efrog (cychgrawn RMS << HHJ) -- Feb. 1744.-" The French prepared a strong fleet of ships and embarked a great army of troops" ... and made an attempt to invade England " in favour of the Pretender, but the Almighty was pleased mercifully to circumvent their design by sending an exceedingly high wind. which destroyed great part of their fleet."

80) Abermaw a Meirion 5 2 1744 Davison, C (1924) A History of British Earthquakes CUP—BARMOUTH EARTHQUAKES: 1744 Feb. 5, several shocks felt in Merionethshire (Cat. No. 95; Milne, vol. 31, p. 76; Gent. Mag. vol. 14, 1744, p. 103).

84) Cymru? 0 8 1746 Charnell-White, C. (heb ei gyhoeddi) Literary Responses to extreme Weather in eighteenth Wales natur—1746: the sun and moon turned the colour of blood, August 1746; also cites a comet apparition in an unidentified location (BWB, no. 150B)

116) Holyhead 2 6 1748 0 0 0 Casgliad Llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon DB Mae'r tywydd fFordd yna fal y byddai yn y dyddiau gynt yn mis Mawrth neu ddechreu Gwanwyn, gwynt a glaw a niwl oerllyd, dim la's ! Mae gennyf yr ardd w'cha yn y Fro. Mae yn awr yn tyfu ynddi agos i bob llysieuyn syn hadu hid (i.e.) pob un dieithrawl a godidawg, o'r Rhodia Radix, yr hwn a dyf ar ben y Wyddfa yn Arfon, hyd yn oed y Pinguicula, yr hwn a dyf ar Dywyn Tre Owein yn Mon ! Ag hefyd goedydd a manwydd beth difesur ! Och na bae ambell un cywraint gwybodawl yn dyfod yma ei gweled, ail yw i ganwyll dan lestr. Daccw'r brawd Owain ynteu yn s'fennu. W.M. 2 6 1748 117) 14 7 1748 Bibliography of Welsh Ballads (yn Charnell-White 2009) natur—1748: solar eclipse, 14 July 1748 (BWB, no. 262)

118) Cymru? 0 0 1749 Bibliography of Welsh Ballads (yn Charnell-White 2009) natur—GOLEUNI'R GOGLEDD: 1749: aurora borealis (BWB, no. 3) 119) Prydain 0 6 1749 National Librarary of Wales Journal (haf) 1958 natur—second coldest June of C18 (since 1698)

120) Alban a swydd Efrog 6 6 1749 Dyddiadur John Saanderson, Owstwick, Swydd Efrog (cychgrawn RMS << HHJ) -- June, 1749." More remarkable than May for coldness.. very hard to endure, nor could I hear of any that had seen the like for coldness in June. We had account from Scotland of a very great fall of snow on the 6th"

128) Galltvadog 21 7 1751 0 0 0 Additional letters Morrisiaid Mon DB—The Great rains not permitting us to Clear the old Bottoms [y mwyngloddiau], which were full of water for many hundreds of years Past [LM > T Chambers, Additional letters Morrisiaid Mon]

131) Cilgwyn / Caernarfon 0 0 1752 Moel Tryfan. Mary Vaughan Jones (dan Haul neu Cynefin) -- Yn 1752 bu cyffro mawr yn y Cilgwyn, pan benderfynodd y chwarelwyr ymosod ar yr ysguboriau grawn [Degwm?] yng Nghaernarfon - hyn mewn cyfnod o dlodi mawr.

132) Pwllheli 0 1 1752 0 0 0 TCHSG1962 DB Caernarfon Quarter Sessions record that in January [1752] the inhabitants of Pwllheli despoiled a sloop [the Blackbird] in the harbour of its cargo of rye and potatoes.....G. Penrhyn Jones

133) Caernarfon etc 0 4 1752 0 0 0 TCHSG1962 DB Serious food riots occurred in caernarfvon and Pwllheli in 1752. In April of that yearthe hungry quarrymen of Mynydd Cilgwyn invaded the town to storm the corn granaries in Shirehall Street, and in the melee one was shot dead and another summarily executed.....G. Penrhyn Jones

137) Cymru 19 9 1752 Kington, J. (2010) Climate and Weather Cyfres New Naturalist (Harper Collins) -- 19 September: heavy rain, severe floods in Wales, 10,000 sheep perished

138) Caergybi ac Abergwyngregyn 12 2 1753 0 0 0 llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon DB—12 Chwefror, '53, Diwrnod yr Eiry mawr !....Y matter sydd fal hyn: marw'r dydd arall a orug Person Aber Gwyn Gregin yn Arfon, a living in the gift of the Baron Hill family, ag mae'n debyg y bydd cynnwrf a symudiadau ymhlith yr offeiriadau cywradiad (ie cywion y rhad etc.)?

140) Caergybi 26 8 1753 0 0 0 dogfen DB—Gerwin o'r glaw a'r gwynt a wnaeth yma heddyw; fe ddarfu am long gynna' o flaen ein llygaid ni, ond fe ddiangodd y bobl. O Gaernarfon roeddyn', ceisio mynd ag yslatis I Ddulun, - mae'r ddryghin drosodd am y tro llythyrau Morrisiaid Mon

147) caergybi 5 5 1754 0 0 0 dogfen DB mae Duw wedi anfon I ni yn ddiweddar ddigonoldeb o wlaw; moliant iddo am danaw. Roedd yn yr ynys yma ei fawr eisiau. Prinder mawr o borthiant milod o bob math ; ni a gawn bellach, Duw yn y blaen, ddigon o borfa etc.

152) Katla, Gwlad yr Ia 0 0 1755 Witze A & J Kanipe J (2014) Island on Fire (Profile Books) natur -- ....the volcano Katla erupted in the autumn of 1755, destroying much of the pastureland with ash fall and floodwaters. The weather improved slightly thereafter, but a smallpox outbreak ravaged the country in 1760, followed by scabies, which in eighteen years slashed the country`s precious sheep population by nearly half. Since then, however, the climate had moderated, the epidemics had diminished and Icelanders had enjoyed great bounties from the land. Good fishing had returned.....

153) Lisbon 0 0 1755 Witze A & Kanipe J (2014) Island on Fire (Profile Books) natur -- ...one leading theory of earth-quakes held that they were born when trapped air rushed out suddenly from the Earth`s interior. Indeed, the great Lisbon quake of [1 Tach] 1755 had also been preceded by a dry fog, possibly from Katla`s eruption that year [hydref 1755].

164) Lisbon, Portiwgal 1 11 1755 0 0 0 Diary of a Village Shopkeeper Thomas Turner DB—General fast [in East Hoathly, Sussex] on 6 Feb on account of the dreadful earthquake in Lisbon and other places on first day of November last [the earthquake and the subsequent deluging of Lisbon by the waters of the Tagus, was followed by fire. The city was devastated and an estimated 30,000 lives lost] (Diary of Thomas Turner) DAEARGRYN

170) Sir Ddinbych 0 0 1756 0 0 0 dogfen DB ym mis Ionawr 1757 gallai [Owen] Thomas ysgrifennu " cofir rhai amdano [y flwyddyn 1756] tra bydden nhw buw, o achos oerfel a drudaniaeth

ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39

171) 0 0 1756 0 0 0 dogfen DB cynhaeaf 1756 yn "dearth" WG Hoskins ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39

172) Conwy 0 0 1756 0 0 0 dogfen DB achoswyd cynhaeaf llwm 1756 gan dywydd gwlyb, y gwlypaf ers cyn cof os rhoddir coel ar un cyfoeswr. Diwedd mis mawrth 1757. Diwedd mis Mawrth ysgrifennodd un gwr bonheddig o Gonwy: as to corn it still bears an excessive price?and has advanced since i wrote and scarce any comes to this[Conwy] poor market, and the meanest sort of people are in great distress

ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39 173) Prydain 0 0 1756 0 0 0 Diary of a Village Shopkeeper Thomas Turner DB the year that had seen the outbreak of the Seven Years War also saw a bad harvest. Prices of foodstuffs rose sharply, and outbreaks of civil disobedience were widespread

179) Prydain 15 5 1756 0 0 0 Diary of a Village Shopkeeper Thomas Turner DB Start of the Seven Years War?formally declared against France following the news of the French attack on Menorca

191) 0 0 1757 0 0 0 dogfen DB cynhaeaf 1757 yn "deficient" WG Hoskins ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39

192) Ynys Mon 0 0 1757 0 0 0 dogfen, EAWilliams1927,H MonBGB DB Blwyddyn sefydlu'rAnglesey Hunt (neu 1743)

200) Conwy 0 3 1757 0 0 0 dogfen DB achoswyd cynhaeaf llwm 1756 gan dywydd gwlyb, y gwlypaf ers cyn cof os rhoddir coel ar un cyfoeswr. Diwedd mis mawrth 1757. Diwedd mis Mawrth ysgrifennodd un gwr bonheddig o Gonwy:as to corn it still bears an excessive price?and has advanced since i wrote and scarce any comes to this[Conwy] poor market, and the meanest sort of people are in great distress

ex John Glyn Parry Traf Cymd Hanes Sir Gaern 39

208) Caergybi 12 8 1757 Vivien Parry Williams (Y Casglwr 109 gaeaf 2013) -- ar 12 Awst 1757, cofnodwyd hanes daeargryn yng Nghaergybi, gyda chanlyniad i lestri ddisgyn o silffoedd cartrefi y fro oherwydd y cryniadau.

217) Cymru? 0 0 1758 Bibliography of Welsh Ballads (yn Charnell-White 2009) natur—1758: year of plenty (BWB, no. 74)

[Efo’r baledi, dyw pwnc y faled ddim o reidrwydd yn cyfateb i’r flwyddyn y cyhoeddwyd hi. Fe all fod yn cyfeirio at y flwyddyn flaenorol neu at gyfnod cynharach – byddai cyhoeddwyr yn aml yn ailgylchu deunydd diddorol hyd yn oes os nad oedd yn gwbl amserol. O bryd i’w gilydd mydryddir y dyddiad yn niweddglo’r faled, ond nid bob tro. Mae’n debyg nad oedd baledwyr yn poeni rhyw lawer am fanylion, oherwydd y neges ddidactig oedd flaenaf yn eu meddwl. Hefyd, mae’n werth ystyried y calendr Iwlaidd &c... a phosibilrwydd arall yw bod effeithiau’r tywydd yn amrywio’n gynnil o ardal i ardal ac y gallai blwyddyn o gyni mewn un ardal fod yn flwyddyn gymharol dda mewn ardal arall. CC-W]

218) Ynys Môn 0 0 1758 Eames, A. (1973) Ships and Seamen of Anglesey AAS natur -- ... wrecks were not regarded as a calamity by people ashore but often enough as some kind of heavenly manna. This was understandable in an age when poverty and famine stalked the land; the crops failed in 1757 and 1758 and hungry mobs marched from Beaumaris and Llannerch-y-medd to Holyhead to attack the warehouses there. William Bulkeley wrote in his diary in February 1758: "Mobbing has been so frequent this winter in this county and several shiploads of corn butter and cheese have been publicly Stole and carryed away...

219) Cilgwyn, Caernarfon 0 0 1758 May, J. (1994) A Chronicle of Welsh Events (Cyh. Christopher Davies) -- two Cilgwyn quarrymen were killed during a food riot sparked off by high corn prices

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