Nodyn:Citation

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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[golygu cod y dudalen]

This template gives the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation | last = | first = | year = | title = | publisher = | publication-place = | page = | url = | accessdate = }}

{{Citation
| last =
| first =
| year =
| title =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| page =
| url =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
    • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: An url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example[golygu cod y dudalen]

{{Citation
| last = Turner
| first = Orsamus
| title = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place = Rochester, New York
| year = 1851
| id = {{OL|7120924W}}
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL7120924W

Full citation parameters[golygu cod y dudalen]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author =
| last =
| first =
| author2 =
| last2 =
| first2 =
| author-link =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| coauthors =
| editor =
| editor-last =
| editor-first =
| editor2 =
| editor2-last =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link =
| editor2-link =
| others =
| publication-date =
| year =
| month =
| origyear =
| title =
| chapter =
| chapter-url =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper =
| magazine =
| work =
| edition =
| series =
| volume =
| issue =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place =
| language =
| page =
| pages =
| nopp =
| at =
| id =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi-inactive =
| url =
| accessdate =
| format =
| archiveurl =
| archivedate =
| quote =
| laysummary =
| laysource =
| laydate =
| separator =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}
  • author (or author1): The author's name. It is preferable to use the last/first attributes below for single or multiple authors.
    • last (or last1): The author's surname or last name.
    • first (or first1): The author's first or given name(s).
    • author2, last2, first2, up to author9 etc.: can be used for multiple authors– up to 8 will be shown before et al. is displayed
    • author-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author (author2-link etc can also be used).
    • author-separator: override the default semi-colon that separates authors.
    • author-name-separator: override the default comma that separates authors' last and first names.
    • author-mask: See #Additional parameters, below.
    • display-authors: Truncate the list of authors at an arbitrary point with "et al". You should still include the first 9 authors to allow metadata to be generated. n.b. operates only when the authors are given using either several |authorn=, or several |lastn=|firstn= pairs; does not affect the display of a list in either |authors= or |coauthors=.
    • lastauthoramp: If supplied, whether or not assigned a value, places an ampersand (&) before the last name of final author, if more than one author is supplied. Recommended usage is lastauthoramp = yes.
    • coauthors: Names of additional author(s) can be given but author2 or last2, first2 is preferred.
  • editor: Name of editor, placed after date with ,ed. Not required for periodicals.
    • editor-link: link to article about the editor
  • others: Any other associated people, e.g., foreword, placed after editor.
  • publication-date (or date): Date[n 1] of publication.
    • date: Date[n 1] of authorship, if different from date of publication. If only date is used, it will be treated as the date of publication.
    • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
      • month: Month of publication (ignored if the date field is used).
    • origyear: Year of first publication, if different.
  • title: Title of the book or article in a periodical. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • chapter or contribution: title of the chapter or part of a publication will be put in quotes.
    • chapter-url or contribution-url: use to add a link to the chapter or contribution title.
  • type: An optional field which can be used to provide additional information about a publication type. The content appears in parentheses following the title. If the publication is a thesis or dissertation, the type might be specified as type = PhD thesis, If the publication is an audiobook on compact disk, the type might be specified as type = CD.
    • journal or periodical or newspaper or magazine or work: Name of the journal or periodical.
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition = 2nd.
    • series: The book series of which this book is a part.
    • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book.
    • issue: Issue number of a periodical.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not needed if ISSN or DOI used.
    • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place = Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
      • place or location: City in which the work was made, if different from the city of publication. If only place is used, it will be treated as the city of publication.
  • language: If not English. e.g., Finnish.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
    • pages: For use when multiple pages are cited. Adds "pp." before the page numbers. Do not use with page.
    • nopp: if set to any value, page = /pages = do not generate 'p.' or 'pp.'. E.g. nopp = true. Using at = has the same effect.
    • at: Position within the resource when |page=/|pages= is inappropriate or insufficient. This parameter is ignored if |page=/|pages= is specified. Examples of usage of |at=: |at=para. 14 (when citing a source without page numbers), |at=02:56 (a film or audio timestamp), |at=no. 456 (something in a numbered list), |at=p. 6, col. 2 (for a page and a column because "column" is not a Citation template parameter), or |at=sec. F pp. 4–6 (for a section and a page within the section, "section" not being a parameter).
  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.
  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers such as Amazon.com; see WP:PAGELINKS.
    • accessdate: Full date when URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations;[1] do not wikilink. Can be hidden by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and the Internet Archive; requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the item was archived; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations;[1] do not wikilink. Displays preceded by "archived from the original on".
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters have error checking to ensure that all the required parameters are included, else {{citation error}} is invoked. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; HTML is implied and should not be specified; displayed in parentheses after title. Does not change external link icon.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news:, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters they will display and link incorrectly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace these characters:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; but unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; but an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Access and archive dates in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
  • separator: specifies the punctuation mark used to separate certain fields. This defaults to a comma; the Citation Style 1 family of templates uses a period.
  • laysummary: url of a lay summary of a technical article, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
    • laysource: Name of the source, e.g., The Guardian (UK newspaper) or New Scientist.
    • laydate: The date[n 1] of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
  • postscript: Set terminal punctuation. Omit or leave blank to remove the trailing full stop. Punctuation specified by this parameter will appear within the cite span, and consequently before any icons added by metadata-using software, e.g., library browser plugins. Hence this parameter should be used instead of manually appending data to the citation. This parameter is ignored if |quote= is specified, when |postscript=. is forced.
  • ref: An explicit ID for Harvard references; see Anchors for Harvard references

Examples[golygu cod y dudalen]

Books[golygu cod y dudalen]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1 = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2 = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3 = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place = Home Base, New York
| volume = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon

Web[golygu cod y dudalen]

Web page
{{Citation
| url = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov
| title = NPS Focus
| work = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places (National Park Service), http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov, adalwyd November 30, 2010
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/
academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/
http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archifwyd o y gwreiddiol ar October 13, 2007, http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html, adalwyd October 25, 2007

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[golygu cod y dudalen]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 12
| issue = 2
| year = 1976
| pages = 1–8
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties", BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1 = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2 = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3 = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4 = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume = 152
| issue = 1
| pages = 153–61
| year = 1981
| pmid = 7338906
| doi = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J, et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol 152 (1): 153–61, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue = 19
| date = October 1, 1879
| year = 1879
| month = October
| page = 289
| url = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289, http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last = Sullivan
| first = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year = 2001
| title = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/
general/pdf/1485.pdf
| format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology, http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[golygu cod y dudalen]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| year = 1876
| editor-last = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1–56085–072–8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, 1996, ISBN 1–56085–072–8
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1–56085–072–8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1–56085–072–8
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[golygu cod y dudalen]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| pages = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History", BYU Studies 17 (1): 35, 1976, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| contribution = Affidavit
| year = 1872
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| pages = 1
| contribution-url = http://
udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), Affidavit, written at Lincoln County, Nevada, in Toohy, Dennis J., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah) 5 (252): 1, September 24, 1872, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359

Press release[golygu cod y dudalen]

Press release with quotation
{{Cite press release
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/
library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3}}
"Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day" (Press release). Apple Inc. http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html. Adalwyd April 10, 2010. "in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3"

Citing patents[golygu cod y dudalen]

Parameters (all are optional)[golygu cod y dudalen]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.

Examples[golygu cod y dudalen]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Nodyn:Citation/authors, "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations[golygu cod y dudalen]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. If an empty |ref= is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title=Civilization and Its Discontents | year = 1930 | ref = CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[golygu cod y dudalen]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p = ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation | last1 = Wright | first1 = Thomas | last2 = Evans | first2 = R.H. | title = Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray | location = London | publisher = Henry G. Bohn | year = 1851 | oclc = 59510372 }}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R.H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p = ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p = ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, t. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[golygu cod y dudalen]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
    • The format of dates in the references of an article should use a consistent and unambiguous style. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14 (ISO standard format: YYYY-MM-DD)
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • 2009 Sep 14
    • September 2009
    • Sept./Oct. 2009
    • As indicated above, month names are sometimes abbreviated, e.g., September to "Sept" or "Sept." or "Sep" or "Sep."
    • Dates should not be linked in references.
    • Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[golygu cod y dudalen]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

TemplateData[golygu cod y dudalen]

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Paramedrau'r nodyn

ParamedrDisgrifiadMathStatws
Last namelast author author1 authors last1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Linesuggested
First namefirst first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Linesuggested
title of sourcetitle

Title of source; displays in italics.

Stringangenrheidiol
date of sourcedate

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Stringdewisol
url of sourceurl

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Stringdewisol
Workwork journal website newspaper magazine encyclopedia encyclopaedia dictionary mailinglist

Name of the work in which the cited title is found

Stringdewisol
Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

Linesuggested
Issueissue number

Issue number

Stringdewisol
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

Linedewisol
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

Linesuggested
Patent Numberpatent-number

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Descriptiondescription

Type of patent; shown between country code and number.

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Publication Datepublication-date pubdate

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

Stringdewisol
Issue Dateissue-date

Date patent was issued by patent agency.

Stringdewisol
Date formatdf

Sets rendered dates to the specified format

Stringdewisol
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

Numberdewisol
Postscriptpostscript

Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.

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Editor last nameeditor-last editor editor-surname editor-last1 editor-surname1 editor1 editor1-last editor1-surname editors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Unknowndewisol
Editor first nameeditor-first editor-first1 editor-given1 editor1-first editor1-given

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Unknowndewisol
Author Maskauthor-mask authormask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.

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Original yearorig-year origyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

Numberdewisol
Translated titletrans-title trans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Contentdewisol
Translated chapter titletrans-chapter trans_chapter

An English language chapter title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Contentdewisol
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

Contentdewisol
Archive URLarchive-url archiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

Linedewisol
Dead URLdead-url deadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

Linedewisol
Seriesseries version

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

Contentdewisol
periodicalperiodical

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Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

Linedewisol
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

Linedewisol
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

Stringdewisol
contributioncontribution

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chapter-urlchapter-url chapterurl

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contribution-urlcontribution-url

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chapter-formatchapter-format

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othersothers

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Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

Linedewisol
Location of publicationplace location

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked

Stringdewisol
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

Contentdewisol
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

Contentdewisol
inin

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Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

Contentdewisol
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

Contentdewisol
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

Linedewisol
ASINasin ASIN

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

Linedewisol
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

Linedewisol
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

Linedewisol
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

Linedewisol
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

Linedewisol
DOIdoi DOI

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

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doi_inactivedatedoi_inactivedate

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DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

Datedewisol
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

Linedewisol
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Linedewisol
eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Linedewisol
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

Linedewisol
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

Linedewisol
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

Linedewisol
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

Linedewisol
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

Numberdewisol
OLol

Open Library identifier

Linedewisol
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

Linedewisol
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

Numberdewisol
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

Linedewisol
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

Numberdewisol
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

Linedewisol
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

Linedewisol
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

Linedewisol
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

Contentdewisol
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

Linedewisol
URL access dateaccess-date accessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

Datedewisol
Lay URLlaysummary layurl lay-url

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source

Linedewisol
Lay sourcelay-source laysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

Stringdewisol
Lay datelay-date laydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

Datedewisol
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

Yn ddiofyn
,
Linedewisol
Last author ampersandlast-author-amp lastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

Booleandewisol
Display authorsdisplayauthors display-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

Numberdewisol
Archive datearchive-date archivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

Datedewisol
inventor-lastinventor-last inventor-surname inventor-last1 inventor invent-1 invent1 inventor1-surname

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inventor2-lastinventor2-last inventor2 invent2 inventor2-surname

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inventor3-lastinventor3-last inventor3 invent3 inventor3-surname

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inventor4-lastinventor4-last inventor4 invent4 inventor4-surname

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inventor-firstinventor-first inventor1-first inventor-given inventor1-given

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inventor2-firstinventor2-first inventor2-given

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inventor3-firstinventor3-first inventor3-given

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inventor4-firstinventor4-first inventor4-given

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Stringdewisol
inventorlinkinventorlink inventorlink1

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inventorlink2inventorlink2

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inventorlink3inventorlink3

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inventorlink4inventorlink4

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Stringdewisol
Last name 2last2 author2 surname2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

Linedewisol
First name 2first2 given2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 3last3 author3 surname3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

Linedewisol
First name 3first3 given3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 4last4 author4 surname4

The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

Linedewisol
First name 4first4 given4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 5last5 author5 surname5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

Linedewisol
First name 5first5 given5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 6last6 author6 surname6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

Linedewisol
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 7last7 author7 surname7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

Linedewisol
First name 7first7 given7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 8last8 author8 surname8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

Linedewisol
First name 8first8 given8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Last name 9last9 author9 surname9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

Linedewisol
First name 9first9 given9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Author linkauthor-link authorlink author1-link authorlink1

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Pagedewisol
Author link 2author-link2 author2-link authorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 3author-link3 author3-link authorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 4author-link4 author4-link authorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 5author-link5 author5-link authorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 6author-link6 author6-link authorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 7author-link7 author7-link authorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 8author-link8 author8-link authorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

Pagedewisol
Author link 9author-link9 author9-link authorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

Pagedewisol
Coauthorcoauthor

Coauthor

Stringanghymeradwyedig
Coauthorscoauthors

Coauthors

Stringanghymeradwyedig
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 2editor2-first editor2-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 3editor3-first editor3-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 4editor4-first editor4-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 5editor5-first editor5-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 6editor6-first editor6-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 7editor7-first editor7-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 8editor8-first editor8-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

Linedewisol
Editor first name 9editor9-first editor9-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

Linedewisol
editor-linkeditor-link

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Stringdewisol
editor1-linkeditor1-link

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editor2-linkeditor2-link

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editor3-linkeditor3-link

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editor4-linkeditor4-link

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Stringdewisol
Translator last nametranslator-last translator translator-last1 translator1 translator1-last

The surname of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Stringdewisol
Translator first nametranslator-first translator1-first translator-first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Stringdewisol
Translator linktranslator-link translator-link1 translator1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Pagedewisol
Translator last name 2translator-last2 translator2 translator2-last

The surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 2translator-first2 translator2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 3translator-last3 translator3 translator3-last

The surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 3translator-first3 translator3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 4translator-last4 translator4 translator4-last

The surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 4translator-first4 translator4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 5translator-last5 translator5 translator5-last

The surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 5translator-first5 translator5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 6translator-last6 translator6 translator6-last

The surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 6translator-first6 translator6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 7translator-last7 translator7 translator7-last

The surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 7translator-first7 translator7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 8translator-last8 translator8 translator8-last

The surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 8translator-first8 translator8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator last name 9translator-last9 translator9 translator9-last

The surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator first name 9translator-first9 translator9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringdewisol
Translator link 2translator-link2 translator2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 3translator-link3 translator3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 4translator-link4 translator4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 5translator-link5 translator5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 6translator-link6 translator6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 7translator-link7 translator7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 8translator-link8 translator8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.

Pagedewisol
Translator link 9translator-link9 translator9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.

Pagedewisol
Country Codecountry-code

Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.

Unknowndewisol

COinS[golygu cod y dudalen]

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

Additional parameters[golygu cod y dudalen]

author-mask — This parameter is primarily intended for use in bibliographies where multiple works by a single author are listed; it is not for use in in-text citations, as it presents the same problems as the use of ibid (see WP:IBID). It replaces the name of the first author (which must still be provided to garner metadata) with a strike-through dash (—) author-mask em in length. So, if |author-mask=1 then the dash will be one em in length, if |author-mask=2 it will be two em long, and so on. Set author-mask to a text value to display a word instead – for example, "with". You must still include |last= and |first= for metadata purposes.