Figaniaeth

Oddi ar Wicipedia
Neidio i: llywio, chwilio
Gofal! Mae'r erthygl hon yn sôn am ddeiet nad yw'n cynnwys unrhyw gynnyrch gan anifeiliaid, ac nid llysieuaeth.
Bwyd y llyswr
photographphotograph
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Clocwedd o'r top chwith: toffw, pitsa,
cacenau di-fenyn a makizushi
Diffiniad cyffredinol Peidio a defnyddio cynnyrch anifeiliaid
Blaenarwyd y tir gan Roger Crab (1621–1680)[1]
James Pierrepont Greaves (1777–1842)
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822)
Sylvester Graham (1794–1851)[2]
Amos Bronson Alcott (1799–1888)
Donald Watson (1910–2005)
H. Jay Dinshah (1933–2000)
Bathiad Saesneg (vegan) Tachwedd 1944, gan y British Vegan Society
Llyswyr enwog
Rhestr o lyswyr ar Wici Saesneg

Figaniaeth yw'r ymarfer o fwyta lysiau a ffrwythau'n unig, heb unrhyw gynnyrch gan anifeiliaid (Saesneg: Veganism). Mae figaniaeth yn ffordd o fyw sydd wedi'i ddilyn ers canrifoedd ond mae'r term yn perthyn i'r 1940au. Gellir ei ddiffinio (mewn modd negyddol) drwy ddweud fod y llyswr yn ymwrthod rhag bwyta cig neu ecsbloitio anifail mewn unrhyw fodd drwy beidio a defnyddio llaeth, wyau, caws, gwlân na mêl. Bathwyd y gair Saesneg vegan yn 1944 gan Donald Watson (sef cydsefydlydd the Vegan Society), drwy gywasgu'r gair vegetarian h.y. veg + an.

Mae sawl rheswm dros bod yn figan (sef person sy'n ymarfer figaniaeth), gan gynnwys rhesymau amgylcheddol, moesol, meddygol, neu ddietegol.

Roedd syniadau gwreiddiol Watson yn 1944 yn ymwneud a llysieuwr nad oedd ychwaith yn defnyddio cynnyrch llaeth, ac o fewn ychydig roedd wedi ehangu'r diffiniad i gynnwys wfftio'r ymarfer o ecsbloitio a defnyddio anifeiliaid mewn unrhyw fodd.[3] Cynyddodd y diddordeb mewn llysiaeth yn y 2000au pan ddaeth bwydydd amrywiol, wedi'u prosesu'n arbennig ar gyfer deiet figanaidd i'r farchnad. Mynegodd nifer o athletwyr eu bônt yn figans, yn enwedig yn y Triathlon Ironmana'r ultrmarathon.[4]

Yr athletwr Carl Lewis, figan

Datgelodd gwaith ymchwil y maethegydd Winston Craig yn 2009 fod deiet figanaidd yn cynnwys lefelau uchel o: ffibr, magnesiwm, asid ffolig, fitamin C, fitamin E, haearn ac yn isel mewn caloriau, braster dirlawn, asidau brasterog, colestorol, fitamin D, calsiwm, zinc a fitamin B12.[5] Ymddengys fod deiet y figan yn cynnig amddiffynfa rhag rhai afiechydon e.e. afiechyd y galon,[6] ac yn addas ar gyfer pob oedran a hynny gan sawl corff safonol[7] Un o'r ychydig fwynau / fitaminau nad yw ar gael mewn planhigion yw B12 (sy'n cael ei greu gan feicro-organebau megis bacteria), yna dylai figans gymeryd ychwanegion B12 ar ffurf tabledi.[8] Dywedir hefyd fod figan, ar y cyfan, yn deneuach, gyda cholestorol a phwysau gwaed is. Credir hefyd fod ffactorau megis ymwrthod rhag cig, bwyta ffrwyth a figans a indecs màs y corff (BMI) isel yn ffactorau sy'n amddiffyn y corff rhag cansar.[9]

Hanes[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Mae llysieuaeth yn ymarfer hŷn na figaniaeth, a gellir ei olrhain yn ôl i India a Groeg. Yn y 19eg y daw'r gair vegetarian i fodolaeth. Defnyddiwyd y gair 'llysieuwr/aig' yn y 15-6g, ond ei ystyr oedd 'person sy'n defnyddio llysiau a pherlysiau i bwrpas meddygol.[10] Roedd 'Geiriadur Saesneg Rhydychen yn wreiddiol yn y 19g yn nodi mai'r actores Fanny Kemble (1809–1893), yn Georgia yn 1839 a sgwennodd y gair am y tro cyntaf.[11] Y bryd hynny total vegetarians oedd y term a ddefnyddiwyd am y figan.[12]

Gweler hefyd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. Records of Buckinghamshire, Cyfrol 3, BPC Letterpress, 1870, tud. 68.
  2. Rynn Berry, "A History of the Raw-Food Movement in the United States," in Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina (eds.), Becoming Raw: The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets, Book Publishing Company, 2010, tud. 9ff.
  3. Donald Watson, Vegan News, Rhif. 1, Tachwedd 1944; "Interview with Donald Watson", Vegetarians in Paradise', 11 Awst 2004; Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Gwanwyn 1951.
  4. Rynn Berry, "Veganism," The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, 2007, tud. 604–605; "Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream", Associated Press, 5 Ionawr 2011; Nijjar, Raman. "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet", CBC News, 4 Mehefin 2011.
  5. Winston J. Craig, "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), Mai 2009, tud. 1627S–1633S: "Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B-12. ... A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases."
  6. Sylwer fod sawl ffynhonnell yn defnyddio'r gair figan i gyfeirio at ddeiet o blanhigion yn unig:

    Claus Leitzmann, "Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?", Forum of Nutrition, 57, 2005, pp. 147–156: "A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. ... In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis."

    Winston J. Craig, "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), Mai 2009, pp. 1627S–1633S (review): "Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease ... A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases."

    J. Sabaté, "The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(3 Suppl), Medi 2003, pp. 502S–507S: "Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases."

    M. Nestle, "Animal v. plant foods in human diets and health: is the historical record unequivocal?", Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 58(2), Mai 1999, pp. 211–218 (review): "This shift has led to increasing scientific consensus that eating more plant foods but fewer animal foods would best promote health. This consensus is based on research relating dietary factors to chronic disease risks, and to observations of exceptionally low chronic disease rates among people consuming vegetarian, Mediterranean and Asian diets. ... Most evidence suggests that a shift to largely plant-based diets would reduce chronic disease risks among industrialized and rapidly-industrializing populations."

    Timothy J. Key, Paul N. Appleby, and M. S. Rosell, "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets", Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(1), Chwefror 2006, tud. 35–41 (review).

    A. Ströhle et al, "Vegetarian nutrition: Preventive potential and possible risks. Part 1: Plant foods", Wien Klin Wochenschr, 118(19–20), October 2006, pp. 580–593 (review).

    L. Van Horn et al, "The evidence for dietary prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(2), Chwefror 2008, tud. 287–331.

    "Building healthy eating patterns", Dietary Guidelines for Americans, United States Department of Agriculture, 2010, p. 45: "In prospective studies of adults, compared to non-vegetarian eating patterns, vegetarian-style eating patterns have been associated with improved health outcomes – lower levels of obesity, a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and lower total mortality. Several clinical trials have documented that vegetarian eating patterns lower blood pressure.

    "On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat (in particular, saturated fatty acids); fewer overall calories; and more fiber, potassium, and vitamin C than do non-vegetarians. In general, vegetarians have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians."

  7. American Dietetic Association, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council a'r Dietitians of Canada.
  8. R. Pawlak, et al. "How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?", Nutrition Reviews, 71(2), Chwefror 2013, tud. 110–117: "The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."
    • Mangels, Messina, and Messina, 2011, tud. 181–192; "Vitamin B12", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, accessed 17 Rhagfyr 2012.
    Reed Mangels, "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 17 Rhagfyr 2012: "Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B12. Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B12. Animals get their vitamin B12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B12 and then the animal becomes a source of vitamin B12. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B12 added to them. Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B12 in their diet."

    Jack Norris, "Vitamin B12: Are you getting it?", Vegan Outreach, 26 Gorffennaf 2006: "Contrary to the many rumors, there are no reliable, unfortified plant sources of vitamin B12 ... [There is an] overwhelming consensus in the mainstream nutrition community, as well as among vegan health professionals, that vitamin B12 fortified foods or supplements are necessary for the optimal health of vegans, and even vegetarians in many cases. Luckily, vitamin B12 is made by bacteria such that it does not need to be obtained from animal products."

    Victor Herbert. "Vitamin B12: plant sources, requirements and assay", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48(3), Medi 1988, tud. 852–858.

  9. Craig 2009 (review).
  10. Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru; Dafydd Trefor; adalwyd 27 Medi 2014
  11. Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1839, tud. 197–198: "The sight and smell of raw meat are especially odious to me, and I have often thought that if I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian, probably, indeed, return entirely to my green and salad days."

    Also see John Davis, "The earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'", and "Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'", International Vegetarian Union, accessed 17 December 2012.

    Rod Preece, Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, University of British Columbia Press, 2008, pp. 12–13: Another early use of vegetarian is the April 1842 edition of The Healthian, a journal published by Alcott House: "Tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial to the wants of his nature."

  12. "Under Examination," The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger, Vol XI, 1884, p. 237: "There are two kinds of Vegetarians – an extreme sect, who eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish ... The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the more moderate division."