Car trydan

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Car trydan "Smart" yn cael ei wefru ar ochr y pafin yn Nice, haf 2014.
Car trydan o'r Almaen, 1904.

Mae'r car trydan yn gerbyd sy'n cael ei yrru gan fotor trydan gan ddefnyddio ynni trydan wedi'i storio mewn batri, cell solar neu ddyfais ynni arall. Mae ceir sy'n dibynu ar drydan yn sydyn a pharod o ran ei drorym (torque) a cheir cyflymiad (acceleration) esmwyth iawn. Ymhlith y gwahanol fathau o geir trydan mae: ceir trydan cell danwydd, ceir celloedd solar, ceir trydan batri a cheir trydan heibrid.

Yn y 1880au yr ymddangosodd y car trydan yn gyntaf.[1] Daethant yn boblogaidd iawn ar ddiwedd y 19eg ganrif ac yna eto ar gychwyn yr 21g. Yn y 1920au gwelwyd datblygiadau technegol cerbydau gasolîn (neu betrol fel y dywedir heddiw) a hynny ar raddfa fawr oherwydd dulliau newydd o fasgynhyrchu'n rhad. Roedd hyn yn hoelen yn arch y car trydan. Un o ganlyniadau yr argyfwng ynni bydeang yn y 1970au a'r 1980au oedd cynnydd aruthrol yn niddordeb pobl yn y car trydan, ond sêr gwib oedd y datblygiadau amgen hyn ac ni chyrhaeddod y ceir y farchnad.

Ym Mehefin 2014 roedd ceir trydan batri tipyn yn ddrytach na cheir arferol oherwydd pris uchel y batri lithiwm,[2] ac y Nissan Leaf oedd y car trydan a oedd wedi gwerthu mwyaf: dros 130,000. Erbyn Medi 2015 roedd dros 30 o fodelau ceir a faniau trydan-yn-unig ar gyfer busnesau. Rhwng 2008 a Medi 2015 gwerthwyd cyfanswm o un miliwn o gerbydau trydan.[3] Y car trydan mwyaf poblogaidd yw'r Nissan Leaf, a lansiwyd yn Rhagfyr 2010 ac a werthir mewn 46 o wledydd. Hyd at Rhagfyr 2005 gwerthwyd dros 200,000; yr ail gar mwyaf poblogaidd yw'r Tesla Model S, a ryddhawyd ym Mehefin 2012, ac a werthwyd dros 100,000 o unedau ledled y byd.[4][5]

Yr Oes Aur cyntaf[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Gwelwyd oes aur y car trydan ar dorriad yr 21g, gyda'r car poblogaidd cynta'n cyrraedd y stryd yn 2008. Mae sawl rheswm dros hyn, gan gynnwys datblygiadau aruthrol yn nhechnoleg y batri, dulliau newydd o reoli'r pŵer a phryder ynghylch prisiau a rheolaeth cyflenwadau olew'r byd law yn llaw â phryder am yr amgylchedd.[6] Mae sawl llywodraeth bellach yn ariannu cynlluniau i hyrwyddo ceir trydan, i leihau carbon deuocsid.

Rhwng 1890 a 1920 roedd ceir trydan yn boblogaidd mewn sawl gwlad, oherwydd eu bod yn fwy cyfforddus na cheir petrol ac yn haws i'w gyrru.[7] Ond byr iawn oedd eu taith ar lond batri o drydan, llawer llai na llond tanc o betrol, a dirywiodd gwerthiant y car trydan o'r herwydd. Roedd y car trydan hefyd yn cymryd llawer iawn mwy o amser i'w ail-lenwi, o'i gymharu â chydig munudau i roi llond y tanc o betrol.

Ar ddiwedd y 19eg ganrif gwelwyd llawer o dacsis yn rhedeg ar fatris trydan; cynlluniodd Walter C. Bersey dacsis ar gyfer strydoedd Llundain yn 1897 a galwyd nhw'n Hummingbirds oherwydd eu sŵn hymian.[8] Yn yr un flwyddyn, cychwynodd Samuel's Electric Carriage and Wagon Company redeg 12 o dacsis yn efrog Newydd[9] ac yn ei anterth,yn 1898, bu ganddo 62 cab a newidiwyd enw'r cwmni yn The Electrical Vehicle Company..[10]

Ym 1911 cyhoeddodd y New York Times fod y car trydan yn "ddelfrydol" gan ei fod yn llawer glanach, tawelach ac yn fwy economegol i'w redeg na cheir gasolîn.[11] Ar y llaw arall, barn y Washington Post yn 2010 oedd fod i'r car trydan ormod o broblemau, fel ag yr oedd yn nyddiau Thomas Edison."[12]

Oes Aur Mileniwm Tri[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Y Nissan Leaf chwyldroadol. Erbyn Mehefin 2014 roedd 120,000 uned wedi'u gwerthu.

Cychwynodd gwneuthurwr ceir trydan Tesla Motors, Califfornia ar gar trydan Tesla Roadster yn 2004 a chyrhaeddodd y cwsmer yn 2008. Erbyn Mawrth 2012 roedd wedi gwerthu 2,250 Roadsters a hynny mewn 31 o wledydd; nifer bychan iawn o'i gymharu a'r ceir petrol a werthwyd yr amser hwnnw.[13] Yna yng Ngorffennaf 2009 lansiwyd y Mitsubishi i MiEV i gwmnioedd yn Japan ac i gwsmeriaid unigol yn Ebrill 2010.[14][15][16] ac i gwsmeriaid yn Awstralia yng Ngorffennaf 2010 ar brydles.[17] Cychwynwyd allforio'r Nissan Leaf o Japan i'r Unol Daleithiau America yn Rhagfyr 2010.[18][19] ac yna yn 2011 i nifer o wledydd Ewropeaidd a Chanada.[20][21]

Profi'r BMW ActiveE er mwyn ei addasu i'r BMW i3 newydd.[22]

Er gwaethaf agwedd draddodiadol negyddol Unol Daleithiau America yn erbyn lleihau carbon deuocsid, yn 2011 gosododd yr Arlywydd Barack Obama darged o un filiwn o geir trydan ar ffyrdd yr UDA erbyn 2015.[23] Ymhlith yr amcanion dros wneud hyn roedd lleihau dibyniaeth y wlad ar olew ac er mwyn sicrhau eu bônt yn arwain y decholeg er mwyn allforio ceir."[24]

Yn 2011 lansiwyd: Smart electric drive, Wheego Whip LiFe, Mia electric, Volvo C30 Electric, a'r Ford Focus Electric ar gyfer cwsmeriaid unigol.

Lansiwyd y Bolloré Bluecar yn Rhagfyr 2011 fel rhan o wasanaeth "rhannu car" ym Mharis,[25] ac yna i gwsmeriaid unigol yn Hydref 2012.[26]

Yn Chwefror 2011 y Mitsubishi i MiEV oedd y car trydan cyntaf i werthu dros 10,000 o unedau. Ychydig fisoedd wedyn, goddiweddwyd y gwerthiant hwn gan y Nissan Leaf fel y car trydan a werthwyd fwyaf erioed.[27]

Yn 2012 a 2013 daeth y canlynol i'r farchnad: BMW ActiveE, Coda, Renault Fluence Z.E., Tesla Model S, Honda Fit EV, Toyota RAV4 EV, Renault Zoe, Roewe E50, Mahindra e2o, Chevrolet Spark EV, Fiat 500e, Volkswagen e-Up!, a'r BMW i3. Gwerthwyd dros 50,000 o'r Nissan Leaf erbyn Chwefror 2013[28] a 100,000 erbyn Ionawr 2014.[29]

Ffynhonnell agored[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Ym Mehefin 2014 cyhoeddodd Tesla Motors eu bwriad i roi eu patentau a'u cyfrinachau technolegol ar drwydded rhydd ac agored.[30] Yn wahanol i wneuthurwyr ceir trydan eraill, mae Tesla Motors yn defnyddio batris gliniaduron ar gyfer eu ceir gan fod eu pris dipyn yn llai: rhwng 3 a 4 gwaith yn rhatach.

Y mathau mwyaf poblogaidd o geir traffordd rhwng 2008 a Rhagfyr 2016(1)
Model Lansiwyd Gwerthiant
bydeang
Gwerthiant
hyd at
Nissan Leaf[31] Rhagf 2010 + 250,000 Rhagf 2016
Tesla Model S[31] Mehef 2012 + 158,000 Rhagf 2016
BMW i3[5] Tach 2013 ~ 65,500(2) Rhagf 2016
Renault Zoe Rhagf 2012 61,205 Rhagf 2016
BAIC EV series[32][33][34][35] 2012 42,646(3) Rhagf 2016
Mitsubishi i-MiEV family[36] Gorff 2009 ~ 37,600 Mehef 2016
BYD e6[32][33][37][38][35] Hydr 2011 34,862(3) Rhagf 2016
Tesla Model X[5] Medi 2015 25,524 Rhagf 2016
Renault Kangoo Z.E.[39] Hydr 2011 25,205 Rhagf 2016
Volkswagen e-Golf[40][41][42][43][44] Mai 2014 24,498(4) Mehef 2016
JAC J3/iEV family[32][33][34][45][46][47] 2010 23,241(3) Mehef 2016

Gweler hefyd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

Cyfeiriadau[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]

  1. Roth, Hans (2011-03). Das erste vierrädrige Elektroauto der Welt [The first four-wheeled electric car in the world] (in German). pp. 2–3.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. National Research Council (2010). "Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies--Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles". The National Academies Press. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12826&page=2. Adalwyd 2010-03-03.
  3. Jeff Cobb (2015-09-16). "One Million Global Plug-In Sales Milestone Reached". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/one-million-global-plug-in-sales-milestone-reached/. Adalwyd 2015-09-16.
  4. Jeff Cobb (2015-12-08). "Nissan Sells 200,000th Leaf Just Before Its Fifth Anniversary". HybriCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/nissan-sells-200000th-leaf-just-before-its-fifth-anniversary/. Adalwyd 2015-12-08. By early December 2015 ... Chevy Volt and its variants [sold] close to 104,000 units, and the Tesla Model S [sold] nearly 100,000.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-26). "Tesla Model S Is World’s Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/tesla-model-s-is-worlds-best-selling-plug-in-car-for-second-year-in-a-row/. Adalwyd 2017-01-26.
  6. David B. Sandalow, ed. (2009). Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington? (1st. ed.). The Brookings Institution. pp. 1–6. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. See Introduction
  7. "Electric automobile". Encyclopædia Britannica (online). http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/182400/electric-automobile. Adalwyd 2014-05-02.
  8. "History of the Licensed London Taxi". London Taxi Cabs. http://www.london-taxi-cabs.com/information/history-of-the-licensed-london-taxi. Adalwyd 2014-01-05.
  9. "Hailing the History of New York's Yellow Cabs". http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=11804573.
  10. "Car Companies". The Early Electric Car Site. http://www.earlyelectric.com/carcompanies.html. Adalwyd 2014-01-05.
  11. "Electric Vehicles Attract Attention". New York Times. 1911-11-12.
  12. Bryce, Robert (2010-04-25). "5 Myths about green energy". Washington Post: p. B4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/23/AR2010042302220.html. Adalwyd 2013-03-12.
  13. Shepardson, David (2012-05-09). "Tesla to deliver first Model S electric by June". The Detroit News. http://www.detroitnews.com/article/20120509/AUTO0104/205090454/1148/rss25. Adalwyd 2012-05-15.
  14. "Mitsubishi Motors Begins Production of i-MiEV; Targeting 1,400 Units in Fiscal 2009". Green Car Congress. 2009-06-05. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/06/imiev-20090605.html. Adalwyd 2010-04-04.
  15. Kageyama, Yuri (2010-03-31). "Japanese Start Buying Affordable Electric Cars". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2011495208_apasjapanelectriccar.html?syndication=rss. Adalwyd 2010-04-24.
  16. Chang-Ran Kim (2010-03-30). "Mitsubishi Motors lowers price of electric i-MiEV". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTOE62T09V20100330. Adalwyd 2010-04-25.
  17. "Mitsubishi Motors to Begin Shipping i-MiEV to Australia in July; 2nd Market Outside Japan". Green Car Congress. 2010-06-02. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/06/imiev-20100602.html#more. Adalwyd 2010-06-02.
  18. "Nissan delivers first Leaf in Japan". The Green Car Website. 2020-12-22. http://www.thegreencarwebsite.co.uk/blog/index.php/2010/12/22/nissan-delivers-first-leaf-in-japan/. Adalwyd 2010-12-23.
  19. Nissan (2010-12-11). "Nissan Makes History With Delivery of World's First 100% Electric Nissan Leaf to California Consumer". PR Newswire. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/nissan-makes-history-with-delivery-of-worlds-first-100-electric-nissan-leaf-to-california-consumer-111725479.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter. Adalwyd 2010-12-11.
  20. Shelley DeBere (2011-11-09). "European Investment Bank invests in Nissan's LEAF car". The Manufacturer. http://www.themanufacturer.com/uk/content/12747/European_Investment_Bank_invests_in_Nissan's_LEAF_car. Adalwyd 2011-12-04.[dolen marw]
  21. "First Nissan Leaf EV Arrives In Canada". Nissan in the News. 2011-07-29. http://www.nissaninthenews.com/first-nissan-leaf-ev-arrives-in-canada/. Adalwyd 2011-07-31.
  22. Lorio, Joe (May 2010). "Green: Rich Steinberg Interview: Electric Bimmer Man". Automobile Magazine. http://www.automobilemag.com/green/news/1005_rich_steinberg_interview/. Adalwyd 2013-02-13.
  23. "Raising the Volt-Age: Is Obama's Goal of 1 Million Electric Vehicles on U.S. Highways by 2015 Realistic?". Scientific American. 2011-02-18. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=one-million-electric-vehicles-by-2015. Adalwyd 2012-10-22.
  24. "One Million Electric Vehicles By 2015 - February 2011 Status Report". U.S. Department of Energy. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/1_million_electric_vehicles_rpt.pdf. Adalwyd 2012-10-22.
  25. Lord, Richard (2011-12-05). "Autolib’ electric car sharing service launches in Paris, France". Sustainable Guernsey. http://www.sustainableguernsey.info/blog/2011/12/autolib-electric-car-sharing-service-launches-in-paris-france/. Adalwyd 2011-12-20.
  26. Lepsch, Laurent (2012-10-08). "Louez une Bluecarpour 500 € par mois [Lease a Bluecar for €500 per month]" (yn French). Auto News. http://www.autonews.fr/dossiers/votre-quotidien/90768-bollore-blucear-paris-location. Adalwyd 2013-07-21.
  27. "Best-selling electric car". Guinness World Records. 2012. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-10000/best-selling-electric-car/. Adalwyd 2013-02-13.[dolen marw]
  28. "Nissan Leaf Smashes 50,000 Global Sales Milestone" (Press release). Nissan Media Room. 2013-02-14. http://nissannews.com/en-US/nissan/usa/releases/nissan-leaf-smashes-50-000-global-sales-milestone. Adalwyd 2013-02-15.
  29. Nissan News Release (2014-01-20). "Nissan LEAF global sales reach 100,000 units". Automotive World. http://www.automotiveworld.com/news-releases/nissan-leaf-global-sales-reach-100000-units/. Adalwyd 2014-01-20.
  30. "Tesla Motors decides to make patents available to boost electric cars". Big News Network. http://www.bignewsnetwork.com/index.php/sid/222852685/scat/c08dd24cec417021/ht/Tesla-Motors-decides-to-make-patents-available-to-boost-electric-cars. Adalwyd 2014-06-12.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-09). "Nissan’s Quarter-Millionth Leaf Means It’s The Best-Selling Plug-in Car In History". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/nissans-quarter-millionth-leaf-means-its-the-best-selling-plug-in-car-in-history/. Adalwyd 2017-01-10. As of Rhagfyr 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the world's best-selling plug-in car in history with more than 250,000 units delivered, followed by the Tesla Model S with over 158,000 sales, the Volt/Ampera family of vehicles with 134,500 vehicles sold, and the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with about 116,500 units sold through November 2016. These are the only plug-in electric cars so far with over 100,000 global sales.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Staff (2016-01-14). "Sales Ranking of China-made Pure-electric Cars in 2015". China Auto Web. http://chinaautoweb.com/2016/01/sales-ranking-of-china-made-pure-electric-cars-in-2015/. Adalwyd 2016-08-16. A total of 16,488 BAIC E-Series EVs, and over 9,000 JAC iEVs were sold in China in 2015.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Staff (2015-01-14). "2014 EV Sales Ranking". China Auto Web. http://chinaautoweb.com/2015/01/2014-ev-sales-ranking/. Adalwyd 2016-02-07. A total of 5,234 E150 EVs (EV200), and about 1,000 J3 EVs were sold in China in 2014.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Henry Lee; Sabrina Howell; Adam Heal (Mehefin 2014). "Leapfrogging or Stalling Out? Electric Vehicles in China". Belfer Center, Harvard Kennedy School. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/24335/leapfrogging_or_stalling_out_electric_vehicles_in_china.html. Adalwyd 2016-08-16. Download EVS in China (full report). See Table 2: Chinas's EV Sales by Brand, 2011–2013, p. 19. BAIC E150 EVs sales totaled 644 units in 2012 and 1,466 in 2013. JAC J3 EV sales totaled 2,485 units in 2012 and 1,309 in 2013
  35. 35.0 35.1 Staff (2017-01-19). "Best-selling China-made EVs in 2016". China Auto Web. http://chinaautoweb.com/2017/01/best-selling-china-made-evs-in-2016/. Adalwyd 2017-01-26. Three BYD Auto models topped the Chinese ranking of best-selling new energy passenger cars in 2016. The BYD Tang SUV was the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units sold, followed by the BYD Qin with 21,868 units sold, and ranking third overall in 2016 was the BYD e6 with 20,605 units.
  36. Cobb, Jeff (2016-08-10). "Global 10 Best-Selling Plug-In Cars Are Accelerating Forward". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/global-10-best-selling-plug-in-cars-are-accelerating-forward/. Adalwyd 2016-08-13. As of Mehefin 2016, cumulative global sales of the top selling plug-in electric cars were led by the Nissan Leaf (over 228,000), followed by the Tesla Model S (129,393), Votl/Ampera family (about 117,300), Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (about 107,400), Toyota Prius PHV (over 75,400), BYD Qin (56,191), Renault Zoe (51,193), BMW i3 (around 49,500), Mitsubishi i-MiEV family (about 37,600) and BYD Tang (37,509).
  37. Mat Gasnier (2013-01-14). "China Full Year 2012: Ford Focus triumphs". Best Selling Car Blog. http://bestsellingcarsblog.com/2013/01/21/china-full-year-2012-ford-focus-triumphs/. Adalwyd 2013-01-22.
  38. Mat Gasnier (2014-01-14). "China December 2013: Focus on the all-new models". Best Selling Cars Blog. http://bestsellingcarsblog.com/2014/01/14/china-december-2013-focus-on-the-all-new-models/. Adalwyd 2014-01-16.
  39. Gwall cyfeirio: Tag <ref> annilys; ni osodwyd unrhyw destun ar gyfer y 'ref' Renault2011_16
  40. Cobb, Jeff (2016-07-05). "Mehefin 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. http://www.hybridcars.com/Mehefin-2016-dashboard/. Adalwyd 2016-08-15.
  41. Jeff Cobb (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. http://www.hybridcars.com/december-2015-dashboard/. Adalwyd 2016-01-23.
  42. Edelstein, Stephen (2016-08-16). "European electric and plug-in hybrid sales for Jan–Mehefin 2016". Green Car Reports. http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1105579_european-electric-and-plug-in-hybrid-sales-for-jan-Mehefin-2016. Adalwyd 2016-08-16. During the first half of 2016 European VW e-Golf sales totaled 3,912 units and VW Golf GTE sales totaled 5,692 units.
  43. Pontes, Jose (2016-01-30). "Europe December 2015". EVSales.com. http://ev-sales.blogspot.com.br/2016/01/europe-december-2015.html. Adalwyd 2016-02-07. European VW e-Golf sales totaled 11,214 units in 2015.
  44. Pontes, Jose (2015-01-31). "Europe December 2014". EVSales.com. http://www.ev-sales.blogspot.ca/2015/01/europe-december-2014.html. Adalwyd 2016-02-07. European VW e-Golf sales totaled 3,328 units in 2014.
  45. Jose, Pontes (2016-07-17). "China Mehefin 2016". EVSales.com. http://ev-sales.blogspot.com.br/2016/07/china-Mehefin-2016.html. Adalwyd 2016-08-15. A total of 9,977 BAIC E-series, and 7,862 JAC iEVs were sold in China during the first half of 2016.
  46. China Auto Web (2012-09-30). "JAC Delivers 500 J3 EVs ("ievs")". China Auto Web. http://chinaautoweb.com/2012/09/jac-delivers-500-j3-evs-ievs/. Adalwyd 2013-04-19. A total of 1,585 of the first and second generation JAC J3 models were sold during 2010 and 2011.
  47. China Auto Web (2013-03-25). "Chinese EV Sales Ranking for 2012". China Auto Web. http://chinaautoweb.com/2013/03/chinese-ev-sales-ranking-for-2012/. Adalwyd 2013-04-19. A total of 2,485 JAC J3 EVs were sold in 2012.

Gweler hefyd[golygu | golygu cod y dudalen]