Tawlbwrdd

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Tawlbwrdd

Mae tawlbwrdd yn fersiwn Cymreig o'r gêm Nordig Hnefatafl, a chafodd ei ddisgrifio gan Robert ab Ifan mewn llawysgrif o 1587. Chwaraewyd y gêm ar fwrdd 11 x 11. Mae'n dilyn yr un rheolau â gwyddbwyll Geltaidd, ac eithrio bod gan y Brenin 12 o amddiffynwyr ac mae'n gwrthwynebu 24 o elynion. Mae peth dadlau a oedd deis yn rhan o'r chwarae gan fod deis wedi'i ddarganfod gyda'r tawlbwrdd mewn sawl cloddfa archeolegol yng Ngwledydd Llychlyn; efallai fod y gair "taflu" yn rhan o'r gair "tawl" neu "tafl".[1]

Cofnododd Robert ap Ifan ym 1587 ddisgrifiad (a llun) o'r gêm, gan ddweud ei fod yn cael ei chwarae ar fwrdd 11×11 gyda 12 darn ar ochr y brenin a 24 ar ochr y gwrthwynebydd. Dyma'r hyn a ysgrifennodd:[2]

The tawlbwrdd should be played with a king in the centre and twelve men in the places next to him, and twenty-four men seek to capture him. These are placed, six in the centre of each side of the board and in the six central positions. And two move the men in the game, and if one [piece] belonging to the king comes between the attackers, he is dead and is thrown out of the game, and the same if one of the attackers comes between two of the king’s men in the same manner. And if the king himself comes between two of the attackers, and if you say ‘Watch your king’ before he moves to that space, and he is unable to escape, you capture him. If the other says ‘I am your liegeman’ and goes between two, there is no harm. If the king can go along the... line, that side wins the game.

Cyfeiriadau[golygu]

  1. Helmfrid 2005, tud.10–11; Bayless 2005, tud.15–16,
  2. Ifan, Robert ap (1587). Y Llyfrgell Genedlaethol, MS 158. Dyfynnwyd yn llyfr Murray, H. J. R. (1951). A History of Board-Games Other than Chess. Gwasg Rhydychen. ISBN 0-19-827401-7. 1951, tud.63.